Urban planning support systems in Japan: evolutions and implications
This paper introduces Japan's institutional efforts on city–level information systems and geospatial databases in various historical phases in the context of urban planning and e–government. The study of urban planning information systems and geospatial data building has been led by the national government from the beginning since 1970s. However, single purpose GISs, such as UIS in 1970s, UIS II in 1980s, and later urban planning GIS in 1990s were not widely accepted by local autonomies as fast as expected until in the 2000s when the municipality as a whole started to build e–government. In recent years, the integrated GIS, which is designed to share the geographic information created in separated governmental divisions, has been showing its rapid development. Through examining the practices of Kawasaki City, this paper illustrates the current situation of institutional planning support systems in Japan and the problems as well.
Keywords: urban planning, planning support systems, information systems, geospatial databases, data sharing, GIS, geographic information systems, e–government, electronic government, Japan