This report assesses the design and implementation of two World Bank-supported programs - The Ouagadougou Strategic Sanitation Plan in Burkina Faso and the Dakar Periurban On-site Sanitation Program in Senegal - by evaluating their methodologies, financial and technical parameters as well as understanding the policy and legal framework in order to replicate their key features where applicable. Section I reviews the trends of the urban sanitation market in West Africa and the rationale for public interventions in sanitation. Section II summarizes the main design features of the two operations. Section III assesses the operation's performances, in terms of outcome, efficiency and equity as well as their sustainability and replicability.
A short history of how we think and talk about sanitation services and why it matters
How we think and talk about sanitation services has changed. The very notion of a sanitation service has been transformed from one focused on technology to one focused on the sustainability of the wider sanitation system. This paper explores the transformation from technology to system by drawing from a review of more than 200 pieces of literature published between 1970 and 2015. Seven prevalent perspectives on sanitation service provision are introduced: sanitation services as a basic human need; increasing...
Learning from the MDGs: Improved sanitation and drainage in cities
The water MDG was widely acknowledged as the furthest from delivering against its objective, with criticism largely levelled at Target 7.C, which aimed to `halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation`. Across two issues of the journal, 22 papers tackle sanitation globally, alongside specific case studies and issues within Mongolia, Zimbabwe, Haiti, South Africa, Mozambique, Ghana, China, Zambia, Tanzania, and several cities in India. Cont...
Realizing the human rights to water and sanitation: A Handbook
UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation. September 2014Since 2010, when the United Nation General Assembly explicitly recognized the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation and the Human Rights Council reaffirmed this recognition, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation has received repeated requests to provide guidance from States (both national and local), service providers, regulators and others, to clarify...
Foundemental of Modern Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan)
Ecological Sanitation (also: EcoSan, Sustainable Sanitation, Alternative Sanitation) is a sanitation approach which aims at collecting the different waste streams separately at source and treating them individually with the objective of recovering valuable nutrients andreusing the clarified water.Ecological sanitation technologies are based on the following three fundamental aspects : Pollution prevention rather than pollution control Sanitize human excreta Use the safe products of sanitized human excreta...
Bio-toilets: Sustainable Solution to India’s Sanitation Challenge
Sanitation facilities in India are alarming with over 600 million people (half of India`s population) having no access to toilets. People are forced to defecate in the open. This poses health hazards, raises environmental concerns and leads to water contamination. This is coupled with the Indian Railways’s open-chute toilet system wherein the human waste drops on the rail tracks. Untreated human waste or the fecal matter lying in the open is a grave threat to the well-being and good health of the society...