John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Urine metabolomics of women from small villages exposed to high environmental cadmium levels

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This study aimed to identify urine metabolites in women exposed to high cadmium levels. 21 women exposed to environmental Cd and 12 age‐matched controls were categorized as high (Urine Cd ≥ 15 µg/g creatinine [Cr]) (n = 9) or low (15 µg/g Cr > UCd > 5 µg/g Cr) (n = 12) exposure. Low molecular weight metabolites in urine were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry after derivatization. An orthogonal partial least‐squares discriminant analysis (OPLS‐DA) model was constructed, and metabolites from the dimensional model were selected according to the variable importance in projection (VIP > 1). Metabolites differing significantly in abundance between different exposure groups were identified by searching mass spectral databases, and related pathways were analyzed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Around 110 significantly different metabolites were detected with VIP > 1 and 48 of them were found to markedly differ in abundance among the three groups. 27 matched with known metabolites, including 22 significantly increased and 5 markedly decreased in the high exposure group (p < 0.01). KEGG results indicated that carbohydrate, amino acid, bone and intestinal flora metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were affected by cadmium exposure. This study identified metabolites that differed in abundance in response to Cd exposure. Further studies may connect these biomarkers to early damages caused by Cd. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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