John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

USE OF FISH EMBRYO TOXICITY TESTS FOR THE PREDICTION OF ACUTE FISH TOXICITY TO CHEMICALS

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The Fish Embryo Test (FET) is a potential animal alternative for the acute fish toxicity (AFT) test. A comprehensive validation program assessed 20 different chemicals to understand intra‐ and inter‐laboratory variability for the FET. The FET had sufficient reproducibility across a range of potencies and modes of action. Here the suitability of the FET as an alternative model is subsequently reviewed by relating FET and acute fish toxicity. A total of 985 FET studies and 1531 AFT studies were summarized. FET‐AFT regressions were performed to understand potential relationships based on physical‐chemical properties, species choices, duration of exposure, chemical classes, chemical functional uses, and modes of action. The FET‐AFT relationships are very robust (slopes near 1.0, intercepts near 0) across 9 orders of magnitude in potency. A recommendation for the predictive regression relationship is based on 96 hr FET and AFT data: log FET LC50 = (0.989*log Fish LC50) −0.195, n = 72 chemicals, r = 0.95, p < 0.001 (LC50 in mg/L) A similar, not statistically different, regression was developed for the entire data set (n = 144 chemicals, unreliable studies deleted). FET‐AFT regressions were robust for major chemical classes with suitably large data sets. Furthermore, regressions were similar to that above for large groups of functional chemical categories such as pesticides, surfactants, and industrial organics. Pharmaceutical regressions (n = 8 studies only) were directionally correct. FET‐AFT relationships were not quantitatively different from acute fish‐acute fish toxicity relationships with the following species: fathead minnow, rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, Japanese medaka, zebrafish. The Fish Embryo Test is scientifically supportable as a rational animal alternative model for ecotoxicological testing of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2013 SETAC

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