The decision that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will make on the citizen petition filed by the International Center for Technology Assessment to require FDA to amend its requirements for products containing nanomaterials will be a watershed event in the history of the regula-tion of products utilizing nanoscale materials.1 In this article, we will discuss the rise to prominence of nanoscale titanium dioxide and zinc oxide as ingredients of sunscreen formulations, and the reasons for the increase in use. We will review the concerns raised by public interest groups and others regarding potential public health and environmental risks attributed to the unique characteristics of the materials, and the actions taken to design and conduct studies to determine whether the nanoscale materials are suitable for use in sunscreens. We will then move to consider how FDA might utilize the data being developed to respond to the aforementioned petition, reviewing FDA’s possible options. The article will conclude with a recommendation as to how FDA might accommodate the competing considerations involved.
- Bergeson & Campbell, P.C.
- Use of Nanoscale Materials in commercial sunscreen products
Designing a model for integrated watershed management in Iran
This study, which designs a model for integrated watershed management in Iran, is based on qualitative research applying a grounded theory methodology. Interviewing was the main tool for gathering data. Using snowball sampling, we chose three categories of informants: (a) academics and experienced natural resource experts, (b) representatives of active environmental non-governmental organizations, and (c) local people. Integrated watershed management was constituted from contextual conditions (i.e., physical...
Evaluation of nutrient retention in vegetated filter strips using the SWAT model
Nutrient fluxes in stream basins need to be controlled to achieve good water quality status. In stream basins with intensive agricultural activities, nutrients predominantly come from diffuse sources. Therefore, best management practices (BMPs) are increasingly implemented to reduce nutrient input to streams. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of vegetated filter strip (VFS) application as an agricultural BMP. For this purpose, SWAT is chosen, a semi-distributed water quality assessment model...
Source apportionment of nitrogen in Estonian rivers
The statistical model MESAW (Matrix Equations for Source Apportionment on Watershed) was used to estimate the diffuse unit-area source emission coefficients of nitrogen in Estonian rivers. The input data included monitored riverine loads, point sources and land use categories from a total of 50 rivers/catchment areas. Two independent studies were conducted: the estimation of emission coefficients for the whole of Estonia and for a smaller study area near Tallinn. The results from both cases showed that drained...
Assessing the impacts of climate change on water resources in the Srepok watershed, Central ...
The Srepok watershed in the Central Highland of Vietnam plays an important role in the economic development of the region. Any harmful effects of climate change on natural resources may cause difficulties for social and economic development in this area. The present study aims to predict and evaluate changes of water resources in the Srepok watershed under the impact of climate change scenarios by using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model. The study used observed weather data from 1990 to 2010 for the...
Daily runoff prediction using the linear and non-linear models
Runoff prediction, as a nonlinear and complex process, is essential for designing canals, water management and planning, flood control and predicting soil erosion. There are a number of techniques for runoff prediction based on the hydro-meteorological and geomorphological variables. In recent years, several soft computing techniques have been developed to predict runoff. There are some challenging issues in runoff modeling including the selection of appropriate inputs and determination of the optimum length of...