Potable water distribution systems (WDS) require upgrade strategies based on a pre-defined time interval which is identified by the responsible water authorities. The main goal of a potable water system upgrade is maintaining the standard and acceptable level of service after the occurrence of increases in the serviced population, asset ageing, and/or development of the serviced area. Defining the level of service varies by location according to the codes and regulations adopted by the water authority. In general, two main factors are notable in planning of WDS upgrade strategies: (1) the ‘level of service’ and (2) the ‘upgrade cost’. In the presented paper, a new index has been introduced to evaluate the level of service for WDS from a pressure point of view. The new index that is presented in this paper is named the ‘Pressure Index (PI)’, and incorporates a number of water connections for five different pressure regimes. As a case study, three existing water network systems in the Castlemaine township area, located in central Victoria, Australia, have been investigated and the relationship between the ‘upgrade costs’ and improvement in PI factors is presented.
EGRINs (Environmental Gene Regulatory Influence Networks) in Rice That Function in the Response to ...
Environmental Gene Regulatory Influence Networks (EGRINs) coordinate the timing and rate of gene expression in response to environmental signals. EGRINs encompass many layers of regulation, which culminate in changes in accumulated transcript levels. Here, we inferred EGRINs for the response of five tropical Asian rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars to high temperatures, water deficit, and agricultural field conditions by systematically integrating time series transcriptome data, patterns of nucleosome-free chromatin,...
Predicting the performance of multi-media filters using artificial neural networks
The impact of flow rate and turbidity on the performance of multi-media filtration has been studied using an artificial neural network (ANN) based model. The ANN model was developed and tested based on experimental data collected from a pilot scale multi-media filter system. Several ANN models were tested, and the best results with the lowest errors were achieved with two hidden layers and five neurons per layer. To examine the significance and efficiency of the developed ANN model it was compared with a linear...
New indices for reliability assessment of water distribution networks
This paper presents new indices to evaluate the reliability of water distribution networks (WDNs) usable in the design, planning and management of these networks. Since the pressure-driven analysis (PDA) of WDNs produces more accurate results than the demand-driven analysis, the new indices are proposed based on the PDA. In the proposed measures, nodal pressures, nodal available discharges and the energy loss per unit length of pipes are considered as the main factors influencing the reliability of WDNs. The...
Case Study - Groundwater Monitoring Network Investigation - Okanagan Kootenay Region
Western Water Associates was tasked with analyzing groundwater chemistry data, recommending modifications of monitoring networks, and enhancing the capability of client staff to interpret data and present findings. They selected EnviroInsite as their principal data visualization application and made rich use of its capabilities to present spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data.
Life Cycle Analysis of Water Networks
AbstractWater authorities around the world are faced with the problem of ageing distribution networks and often only limited historical data on which to base a sound long term, cost efficient replacement policy. The LICAN approach to whole of life costing is introduced and a hypothetical case study is used to demonstrate the importance of such an approach. A selection of pipe networks utilizing different pipe materials (PVC, DI and PE) are modeled to determine their whole of life cost, taking into account installat...