We consider critical infrastructures as cyber–physical systems (CPS). Although simulations play an important role for CPS, no single simulator is available to simulate different depending CI. Therefore, interoperability of simulators in federated simulations is an important requirement. For modelling and simulation of CPS behaviour, both physical and control aspects have to be considered. CPS control is essentially based on events, states and reactions. Today there are mature numerical simulations for physical behaviours, whereas control is frequently treated in a restricted and ad–hoc manner. We present and analyse different simulator integration approaches based on explicit semantic models and show how they improve the modelling and simulation capabilities of federated simulations in CPS. We demonstrate how complex event processing and reactive rules allow the description of CPS behaviour on the event and action level and the integration of control into federated simulations.
Keywords: critical infrastructures, cyber–physical systems, CPS, federated simulation, complex event processing, CEP, reactive rules, semantic modelling, simulator interoperability