Keywords: extraction, oil shale, retorting, shale oil, bitumen fraction, chloroform, toluene, distillation, solvents
Utilisation of shale oil by the extraction and retorting of oil shale
Extraction of the bitumen fraction of oil shale was carried out using two different solvents, chloroform and toluene. Oil shale of 4.0 mm particle size from the El-Lajjun area in Jordan was used in this study. The solvents were recovered by distillation. The spent shale was retorted using a special retort and shale oil (Kerogen) was recovered. The quantity of the hydrocarbon was compared with that produced by using a Fischer Assay retort. When chloroform was used as solvent, it was found that the average amount of bitumen extracted was 0.034 g/g of oil shale and the amount of kerogen obtained was 0.099 g/g of oil shale with a total amount of oil 0.133 g/g and with 86.4% of the solvent recovered. When toluene was used as solvent it was found that the amount of bitumen extracted was 0.026 g/g oil shale and the amount of kerogen obtained was 0.116 g/g oil shale with a total amount of oil 0.142 g/g and with 94.7% of the solvent recovered. The quantities of oil recovered using both solvents were higher than that recovered using the Fischer Assay retort where only 0.106 g/g oil shale were obtained.