Keywords: sustainability, environmental issues, technology–organisation–environment framework, TOE, complexity, political processes, information systems development, ISD, knowledge–based perspective, knowledge integration, organisational learning, cooperative learning, Wal–Mart, sustainable packaging scorecard, sustainable development, supply chain networks, sustainable supply chains, socio–technical approach, information technology support
Wal–Mart's sustainable packaging scorecard initiative through the lens of the technology–organisation–environment (TOE) framework
This study explains the implementation of the packaging scorecard initiative that supports the environmental and sustainability goals of Wal–Mart using the technology–organisation–environment (TOE) framework of Tornatzky and Fleischer. This is, therefore, mainly a qualitative/theoretical study where different relevant concepts are applied to a firm whose implementation experience is captured from secondary sources. Suggestions are made about updating the Tornatzky and Fleischer framework within the light of the sustainability requirements of supply chain networks. The importance of the systems analysis, design, and maintenance or post–implementation stages of the systems development life cycle and the use of the socio–technical approach is especially noted considering the need for information technology support for sustainability and environmental concerns.