In-sewer deposits in combined sewer systems (CSSs) are closely related with the behavior of first foul flush and combined sewer overflows. However, the research paying attention to the role of in-sewer deposits is quite rare, furthermore, their contributions for the washoff patterns of each pollutant including pathogenic microorganisms are almost never discussed so far. The artificial flushing experiment separating the washoff of in-sewer deposits from the inflow of surface pollutants was carried out to simulate the first foul flush in a CSS. The washoff behaviors of each pollutant including bacterial indicators and enteric viruses were investigated. Several morphological analyses for the concentration and load curves of each parameter were conducted and all patterns were classified according to their washoff characteristics and first foul flush patterns. The washoff behaviors of each pollutant and microorganism are different from each other and categorized into several groups according to their (i) time-series concentration and load curves and (ii) concentration vs. flow rate curves, respectively. The first foul flush patterns of each parameter were to be categorized into typical 3 groups; strong-, partial-, and no first foul flush group. The order of these groups signifies the strength of the first foul flush phenomena and the runoff priority as well.
Keywords: artificial flushing, bacterial indicator, combined sewer overflows (CSOs), enteric virus, first foul flush, in-sewer deposits