Water budget analysis and management for Bangkok Metropolis, Thailand
The water budget of the Bangkok Metropolis system was analyzed using a material flow analysis model. Total imported flows into the system were 80,080 million m3 per year (Mm3 y–1) including inflows from the Chao Phraya and Mae Klong rivers and rainwater. Total exported flows out of the system were 78,528 Mm3 y–1 including outflow into the lower Chao Phraya River and tap water (TW) distributed to suburbs. Total rates of stock exchange (1,552 Mm3 y–1) were found in the processes of water recycling, TW distribution, domestic use, swine farming, aquaculture, and paddy fields. Only 21% of the total amount of wastewater (1,255 Mm3 y–1) was collected, with insufficient treatment capacity of about 415 Mm3 y–1. Domestic and business (industrial and commercial sectors) areas were major point sources, whereas paddy fields were a major non-point source of wastewater. To manage Bangkok's water budget, critical measures have to be considered. Wastewater treatment capacity and efficiency of wastewater collection should be improved. On-site wastewater treatment plants for residential areas should be installed. Urban planning and land use zoning are suggested to control land use activities. Green technology should be supported to reduce wastewater from farming.