IWA Publishing

Water, energy, and food nexus: review of global implementation and simulation model development

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Courtesy of IWA Publishing

Water, energy, and food (WEF) have complex interconnections. Water is required to produce energy, while energy is needed for water extraction, treatment, and distribution. The food sector requires water and energy to produce food products, while fertilizer and pesticide from farmland have a negative impact on water quality; however, biomass is a potential alternative energy source. Understanding these interconnections will help determine the developmental framework that connects all of the elements. Some global regions have implemented a variety of sustainable management concepts to manage the natural resources, however, mainly for an individual resource. Furthermore, various computer models have been developed to estimate the interdependency of each resource and to quantify future requirements of WEF; the limitations of current models have opened opportunities for development through the addition of components and features such as feedback analysis, optimization, and visualization. We reviewed the literature to determine the present state of the WEF nexus, especially its global implementation and simulation model. We concluded that the involvement of stakeholders, integration of policies, and development of a nexus simulation model are required for successful implementation of the WEF nexus, which is an emerging issue for a sustainable resources' management.

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