Water hammer (hydraulic shock) causes and preventative measures

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Courtesy of BakerCorp

Water hammer (or hydraulic shock) is the momentary increase in pressure inside a pipe caused by a sudden change of direction or velocity of the liquid in the pipe. Water hammer can be particularly dangerous because the increase in pressure can be severe enough to rupture a pipe or cause damage to equipment.

Therefore, the proper opening and closing of valves is fundamental to safe pipeline operation. Closing a valve at the downstream end of a pipeline creates a pressure wave that moves in the upstream direction. Closing a valve in less time than it takes for the shock wave to travel to the end of the pipeline and back is called “sudden valve closure”. Sudden valve closure will change velocity quickly and can result in a pressure surge.

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