This paper provides a review of the recent institutional changes observed in the water sector in Chile. This review is then used to reflect the Chilean experience in the light of the results concerning institutional change found in existing literature on both institutional economics in general and water institutional economics in particular. These results relate to factors explaining institutional change and the role of endogenous institutional features, such as path dependency and institutional linkages during the reform process. Against a brief description of the main features of the water sector in Chile, the paper provides an overview of Chilean water management institutions and the reforms process ongoing since the 1980s. The factors that motivated institutional changes in Chile's water management include ideology, transactions costs, interest-group behavior and path dependency. While the already observed institutional changes, such as the transferable water rights, water markets and urban water reforms, are all significant, further reforms are delayed by the deliberate legislative process required for changes as a result of the 1980 Constitution. Future water reforms in Chile, therefore, depend on a very difficult process of political reforms needed to change the 1980 Constitution and the 1981 Water Code.
Wetlands act as valuable urban water treatment
As cities and urban landscapes expand across the globe, water resource management continues to pose a huge challenge. Natural wetlands are often built over as cities grow, but a recent strategy of green infrastructure applies the opposite principle – wetlands are protected and constructed as part of city planning. Wetlands, whether natural or man-made, act as large-scale storage and filtration centers for water streams. Beyond providing a habitat for wildlife and greenery in otherwise urban landscapes,...
Ordos urban water supply project Phase 1, phase 2 - Case Study
Project Location: Ordos Capacity: 100,000 m³/d Model: 2 sets of HAST10（RizonSDI Automatic SDI Monitor - Waste water Application)
Small town water services sustainability checks: development and application in Ethiopia
With rising coverage figures and the advent of the Sustainable Development Goals, there is increasing attention given to assessing and monitoring the sustainability of water services. Previous efforts in the rural water supply sector have included the development of sustainability checks, while in the urban water supply sector, benchmarking of water services and the performance of utilities has become common practice. This paper argues that neither rural sustainability checks, nor urban benchmarking frameworks,...
In the shadow of the city: financing water infrastructure in small towns in Burkina Faso
The abundant praise awarded for the development of the urban water services sector in Burkina Faso stands in stark contrast with the development of the rural water services sector. This article examines the funding of water infrastructure in four small villages in Burkina Faso. The article finds that public funding for water infrastructure for these municipalities is largely nonexistent. First of all, central government makes very little funding available for rural areas. Funding that is made available is then...
Multicriteria performance analysis of an integrated urban wastewater system for energy management
The optimization and management of an integrated urban wastewater system is a complex problem involving many processes and variables. The possible control options are defined by several management strategies that may differently impact the economic, operational or environmental performance of the system. The present paper aims to contribute to the environmental and energy sustainability of urban wastewater systems by means of a multicriteria performance analysis. The paper begins with a complete analysis of the...