Hind Pharma

Hind Pharma

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Efficacy of Ef-Chlor for Drinking Water Purification and
Multipurpose Disinfection
Abhishek Bajpai 1
, R.S. Goswami 2
, Aayush Goswami 3
, Shrikant Garde 4
, Preeti Phadnis 5
1 M.Sc. Biotechnology student, VIT University Vellore, T.N., India 2 CEO, Hind Pharma, Bhopal, M.P., India 3 COO, Hind Pharma, Bhopal, M.P., India 4 Manager Marketing and Sales, Hind Pharma, Bhopal, M.P., India 5
QC Manager, Hind Pharma, Bhopal, M.P., India.
Abstract- Ef-Chlor is a product manufactured by Hind Pharma containing Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) as its major
component, which is an effective compound used for water purification, disinfection and sterilization. Ef-Chlor ensures maximum
protection against a wide range of disease-causing pathogens. This paper provides information on different areas where Ef-Chlor
tablets containing NaDCC can act in an effective manner and could substitute the old methods, formulations and compounds still used
for purifying water. This paper summarizes the effectiveness of NaDCC (major component of Ef-Chlor) over of all other traditional
formulations with emphasize on its good antimicrobial activity, more safety, better stability, long shelf life, prolonged protection and
affordability. The efficiency of Ef-Chlor {NaDCC} was also analysed against harmful pathogens in microbial testing where it
demonstrated its immense effectiveness. Research papers, literatures, articles, studies and experimentation results available for
reference have supported the claim stating NaDCC as a superior product over others. Ef-Chlor’s capability for use in broad domestic
and industrial applications, its efficiency to work from small to large volumes and its strength to kill maximum pathogens makes it an
ideal product in the market. Ef-Chlor could be used for municipal water supplies, household purposes, hospital uses, fruits and
vegetable disinfection, janitorial cleaning, marine applications, poultry and many more areas as well as in emergencies and disaster
situations where there is a demand for immediate disinfection and a need for clean drinking water. Ef-Chlor can act as a preventive aid
for the various water borne diseases prevailing globally and thus it can contribute towards improving the global health conditions.
Index Terms- Disinfection, Ef-Chlor, Hind Pharma, NaDCC, Sterilization
I. INTRODUCTION
he spread of diseases from contaminated water has taken a vigorous rise globally. There is an increasing demand for a product
that can be useful in disinfecting water from various disease causing microbes. Among various water-borne diseases, the common
ones which are found in India are Diarrhoea, Typhoid, Malaria, Amoebiasis (Amoebic dysentery), Cholera, Giardiasis and Filariasis
(Chabba, 2013)1
. The contamination levels in water have taken a hike causing an increase in health hazards in societies globally.
Water borne pathogens have major health impacts, relatively causing more damage to young children, underdeveloped and developing
regions that lack proper supply of treated water. With the change in climate, the threat of water borne diseases also increase as seen in
the rainy season where an escalation in spread of these diseases are observed. Water contamination level rises during emergencies like
floods, tsunami, and heavy rains causing a massive outbreak of infectious diseases spreading via water.
A global study states that in developing countries diarrhoea accounted for 21% deaths of most children fewer than 5 years of
age and total 2.5 million deaths per year (Kosek & Guerrant, 2003)2
. An article of WHO stated that the water related diseases caused
by microorganisms present in contaminated water leads to death of more than 3.4 million people each year in which most of the
victims are young children. Also according to an assessment done by United Nations says that 4000 children die each day from
diseases caused by ingestion of filthy water. Reports state that four out of every ten people in world do not have access to clean
drinking water, particularly in African and Asian regions (Berman, 2009)
3
. A study gives information on outbreak of different waterassociated infectious diseases spreading worldwide corelating it with socio-environmental factors and showing its impact on all
regions globally (Yang, 2009)4
.A mandatory access to pure water is required for improvement in the health conditions of people in
India too. Reports have stated that between 400000 and 500000 children with an age of around 5 years die every year from diarrhoea
(a major water-borne disease) due to lack of personal and home hygiene in India (Murdur, 2003)5
. There is a need to purify available
water to make it free from microbial contaminations that will help to slow down and cease the spread of water borne diseases in
people and also mainly among children who are living in underdeveloped, poor and rural areas where contamination in water is high.
There is an increasing demand for a product that can disinfect the water and make it suitable for the purposes of drinking, household
works, washing, cleaning, cooking and other related activities.
A product that can be beneficiary in all the situations is Ef-Chlor, which is being manufactured by Hind Pharma, India. EfChlor (manufactured in tablets as well as granules form) can be used for Water Purification, Sterilization and General Disinfection on
nearly all objects. These are Sterilising Effervescent Tablets, which act as a broad-spectrum fast acting sanitizers and water sterilizers
that are quick and effective against a wide range of Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi and Protozoa. These tablets are useful in a wide range of
T
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industries for disinfection of water and sterilization (Hind Pharma)6
. Ef-Chlor consists of Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) that
maintains a continuous and prolonged supply of Chlorine, which reacts with organic matter and the various pathogens present in the
water and kills them. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), World Health Organisation (WHO) and The United Nations
Children’s Fund (UNICEF) have marked NaDCC safe for usage. In addition to this United States and many other countries have listed
NaDCC to be used in emergencies for the purpose of drinking water disinfection (Kuznesof, 2004 )7
.
Ef-Chlor:- Genreal composition and working
Ef-Chlor is a product manufactured and marketed by Hind Pharma, India consisting adequate amount of NaDCC present in
them. Each tablet of ef chlor is designed to supply a specific quantity of chlorine which can be used for disinfection of a particular
volume of water. NaDCC has chlorine present in the hypochlorous forms (HOCl) which is an active antimicrobial agent showing
effectiveness against a broad range of bacterias, fungi, viruses and protozoas. The production of NaDCC, its formulation, safety
aspects, its working efficiency and other details are briefly presented by Paul M. Kuznesof (Kuznesof, 2004 )7 in his works. Ef-Chlor
tablets containing NaDCC are dissolved in water to decontaminate it and make it suitable to be used for drinking and other household
purposes. The high disinfecting ability of NaDCC and its antimicrobrial properties makes Ef-Chlor an advisable product to be used for
disnfection and sterilization purposes. NaDCC works on a broad spectrum of pathogens and a wide pH range. NaDCC has proven to
be effective against different bacterial species and gave positive results in killing various pathogens. In addition to this NaDCC has
delivered better working efficiency and shown higher activity then other formulations like NaOCl (Bloomfield, 1979)8
. Biofilms are a
mojor contaminant of water and thus their presence makes water unfit for any use and increases the possibility in the spread of water
borne diseases. NaDCC has been tested and found to be effective against bacteria growing in planktonic as well as in biofilm cell
populations. NaDCC did not only eliminated bacterias is planktonic population but also inhibited biofilms formation inactivating the
existing biofilms (Morgenthaua, 2012)9
. The high antibacterial properties of NaDCC makes Ef-Chlor convininet to be used for
drinking water purification, household purposes, baby products sterilization, hospital disinfection, janitorial cleaning and other related
application.
Chemical action of Ef-Chlor (NaDCC in water)
NaDCC + H2O = HClO + Na+ + H2C4
-
Hydrolysis of chlorine compound Formation of hypochlorous acid
HClO = H+
+ ClOStabilization of hypochlorous acid at the pH of water
HClO = HCl + [O]
Decomposition of HClO to liberate nascent oxygen
[O] + MICROORGANISM = HCl + OXIDISED MICRO ORGANISM
(DEATH OF GERMS)
Oxidation & destruction of germs by nascent oxygen
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is electrically neutral and hypochlorite ions (OCl-) are electrically negative in nature. The cell wall
of pathogenic microorganisms is negatively charged usually which can be penetrated by the neutral hypochlorous acid, rather than by
the negatively charged hypochlorite ion. Thus the free available chlorine released by NaDCC (and other chlorine donors, including the
chlorinated isocyanurates) in solution will oxidise many organic and inorganic compounds in water.
Properties of Ef-Chlor
Ef-Chlor has more free available chlorine (FAC) in the form of hypochlorides (HOCl) and it is manufactured in both tablets as
well as granular forms. NaDCC (major component present in Ef-Chlor) is marked totally safe by WHO, EPA and UNICEF for the use
of drinking water purification and other household works (Kuznesof, 2004 )7
. Ef-Chlor does chlorination of water, which is an
effectively known method for disinfection of water (World Health Organization , 2004)10. Ef-Chlor does not impart any strange colour
or taste in the water which it is dissolved. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) have more stability and longer shelf life then any
other compound used for water purification purposes. NaDCC is environmental friendly and does not react with any other non
pathogenic (non-harmfull) biomolecules present in water. A toxicological review on cyanurates and its chlorinated derivatives gives
information on non-toxic and harmless attributes of dichloroisocyanurates and also advice the acceptable dossage of it to be used
(Hammond, 1986)11. Ef-Chlor is designed in tablet form which gives an advantage of using specific dossage for a particular volume,
eliminating the chances of underdosing or overdosing. The tablet structure of Ef-Chlor makes it a product that is easy to handle and
store, moreover it could be used for traveling and camping purposes for purification of water. Ef-Chlor shows high efficiency in less
time and works on a far-reaching ranges of pH and temperatures. It works on a broad spectrum of microbes including different species
of bacterias, viruses, fungi, protozoas, mycoplasma, etc. The antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate was tested against
66 strains of fungi, 28 gram positive bacteria and 29 gram negative bacteria, protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis, on which it
presented exceptionally good results even in the presence of 1% organic substance (D'Auria, 1989 )12.
General Uses of Ef-Chlor
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The maximum use of Ef-Chlor can be drained for the purpose of purification of drinking water. As Ef-Chlor has efficient
working against a wide spectrum of water borne pathogens, it can be used for improving and enhancing the water quality and making
it free from microbial load. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate has shown effective working as an antimicrobial agent in purification of
drinking water at household level. It has many advantages over tradional water purification practices as well as it has proven as a safe
and non toxic way in which water is efficienty treated wiping out the maximum pathogenic population (Clasen, 2006)13. Ef-Chlor can
be used with water serving different purposes in household work like cleaning, washing, bathing and cooking. The high antimicrobial
activity of NaDCC discussed earlier makes Ef-Chlor an optimum choice to be used for sanitization applications, bottle sterilization,
fruits and vegetable disinfection and other similar activities. The hygiene maintaning and disease controling capability of NaDCC
makes Ef-Chlor a preferable choice to be used in janitorial cleaning too. The tablet manufacturing and strip packaging of Ef-Chlor
extends its appliance for use in travelling and camping. Ef-Chlor is safe, easy to handle, smooth in storage and trasport as well as
simple for evaluating its usable dossage. It is largely used in the fields of poultry and dairy animals and their products. There is an
enormous range of pathogens which can multiply, survive and infect the poultry animals and their products leading to a decrease in
their yield. Ef-Chlor tablets can be used in proper dossage by dissolving them in water served to animals or can be sprayed which will
result in disinfection of water and surroundings, not only killing the bacterias but also stopping the spread of water borne infectious
diseases, which would help the farmers and breeders to increase the yield and productivity. Ef-Chlor can be used in Broiler/Layer
farms, Breeder farms, Hatchery units, Cattle Breeding/Dairy Production and Milk Plants. When a large number of animals are living
together, there is a high risk concerning the spread of infectious diseases from one animal to other. In these situations Ef-Chlor can be
used in purifying drinking water which is fed to livestock as it does not impart any uncommon colour, foul smell or unpleasant taste in
water, so there won’t be any change in the water intake of animals. Regular surface disinfection, disinfection of the cages and feeding
utensils of animals used at zoos, clinics and farms can help in reducing the spread of infectious diseases among animals and to humans
via contaminated animal products. In Fisheries there is a danger of cross contamination to fishes from the surface and water which
they come in contact with as there is presence of a diverse natural microflora in water. Fish tissues are an ideal medium for the growth
of bacteria and therefore washing and rinsing the fish with NaDCC before consumption reduces the chances of spread of water borne
diseases. Ef-Chlor is also effective against viruses associated with food borne diseases, especially in shellfish and it also inactivates
the formation of biofilms which is generally observed at room temperature (Hind Pharma) 6
.Sodium dichloroisocyanurate was also
found powerful for the sterilization of explants and cultures and disinfecting micropropagated plants from a broad range of bacterial
species. It was found to be stable at room temperature (in tablets as well as solution), it was able to sterilize plants contaminated
heavily from bacterial species and also reduced the phytotoxicity (Parkinson, 1996)14.More uses of Ef-Chlor in essential sectors like
Drinking water purification, Hospital purposes, Municipal water supplies and during Emergencies and Disasters will be discussed in
this paper later.
Activity of Ef-Chlor against Bacterial Species
Bacterial species commonly found in water are E.Coli, Shigella, Salmonella, etc. leading to food poisoning, diarrhea, in some
severe cases cause bloody diarrhea, watery diarrhea, urinary tract infection, etc. Elimination of these bacterias from water is a
necessity to make water potable and more suitable for purpose of drinking, cooking, washing and other works. The antibacterial
properties of NaDCC were evaluated by testing it against 28 gram- positive bacteria and 29 gram-negative bacteria including strains of
E.Coli, Salmonella typhimurium. NaDCC demonstrated good antibacterial activity against all the tested strains and there was no
decrease observed in its activity even in the presence of 1 % organic substance (D'Auria, 1989 )12. Presence of E.Coli in water is a
major cause of urinary tract infection. NaDCC’s effectiveness was checked against multiple bacterial species like E.coli,
Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, etc. using varying parameters like pH and dilution factors. Higher bacteriocidal and
disinfecting capabilities of NaDCC were observed against these organisms (Bloomfield, 1979)8
. The susceptibility of NaDCC has
been established for bacterial species like Escherichia coli, Salmonella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, Campylobacter jejuni and
Yersinia enterocolitica (Clasen, 2006)13.These species are the main contributers in the spread of water borne infectious diseases. The
cytotoxic effects of NaDCC were tested in-vitro using human fibroblast culture taking minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal
bacteriocidal concentraion of NaDCC against Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus salivarius, Enterococcus faecalis and
Streptococcus mutans. NaDCC was found to be very effective in killing these bacterial species and also its non lethal concentration
range for fibroblasts was evaluated (Heling, 2001)15. NaDCC tablets were tested for bacteriocidal activity against Staphylococcus
aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was concluded that NaDCC was effective in killing these bacterias and had minimum level of
available chlorine and greater stability (Coates, 1985)16. NaDCC used in specific concentrations have shown effective disinfection
against Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing as planktonic cells and against aquatic biofilms which are the major conatminants of water
in environment contributing in the spread of water borne diseases like diarrhoea. Aquatic biofilms even provide protection for
multiplication and development of pathogens like E.coli, P.aeruginosa, Yersinia pestis, Helicobacter pylori and many more which are
the primary sources of water borne diseases (Morgenthaua, 2012)9
. Clostridium difficile is a major cause of hospital-associated
infective diarrhea and its spores can linger around for months in the hospital environment. Chlorine (dichloroisocyanurate) containing
germicides were able to inhibit the growth of C.difficile as well as inactivate C.difficile spores showing greater effectiveness than other
compounds used (Fawley, 2007)17. Fecal Coliform bacteria are primary indicator for presence of disease causing organisms. Presence
of Coliforms in water hints towards the possiblitily of presence of organisms that can cause water borne diseases. A experiment was
carried out in broiler carcass combined with chilling systems used in poultry resulted that sodium dichloroisocyanurate was not only
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effective against Salmonella and Campylobacter species but was also efficient in reducing Fecal Coliform count in the water samples
(Whyte, 2002)18.
Activity of Ef-Chlor against Protozoan Species
Entameoba histolytica is the highest prevailing protozoa in water causing amebiasis and amebic liver abscess. It is capable of
causing multiple illnesses like dysentery, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhoea, severe colitis, etc. In severe cases, it may lead to anaemia
due to excessive loss of blood. Giardia lamblia is the causative agent of Giardiasis that is a major diarrheal disease found throughout
the world, largely spreading through contamination of raw water supplies. Cryptosporidiosis caused by infection from protozoan
species of genus Cryptosporidium leads to a self-limited diarrheal illness in healthy individuals. Cryptosporidiosis causes prolonged
and persistent diarrhoea chiefly in people with weak immune systems. Species of Cyclospora causes Cyclosporiasis and
Microsporidia species cause Microsporidiasis. These both are responsible for intestinal infection and illness causing diarrhoea in
immunocomprimised individuals. A study conducted to analyse the efficacy of NaDCC against these protozoan species revealed that
all of these parasites were susceptible to NaDCC. It was stated that E.histolytica and G.lamblia were most susceptible by the action of
NaDCC on them (El Zawawy, 2010 )19.
Activity of Ef-Chlor against Virus Species
Rotavirus is a leading cause of diarrhea and dehydration worldwide extensively affecting the infants and the children. Severe
and untreated attack from Rotavirus may lead to death because of dehydration. Adenovirus are capable of causing asymptomatic
respiratory tract infection creating a damage in the tissues and cells of respiratory tract. Calicivirus species causes respiratory infection
in cats and acute gastroenteritis in human beings. The lehal virus species like Hepatitis A causes inflammation of liver cells and
Poliovirus (type 1) causes Polio (poliomyelitis), which can also spread through contamination of water. Susceptibility to hypochlorus
acid formed on dissociation of NaDCC is seen in all the above mentioned virus species (D'Auria, 1989 )12 (Block, 2001)20.
Gastrointestinal infections (GI) is the most common spreaded infection in community and hospitals especially affecting the children
below 5 years of age. GI mostly spread through Rotavirus and Novovirus species and causes diarrhea, cramps, nausea, vomiting and
fever. Chlorine compounds can be used as surface decontaminants combined with appropriate cleaning procedures to reduce the risk
of presence and spread of viral GI (Protano, 2008)21. Duck Hepatitis B Virus (DHBV) is the causative agent of Hepatitis B in ducks.
NaDCC when used in a concentration dependent manner inactivates DHBV (Sofer, 2003 )22. NaDCC when used in appropriate
conentration kills Hepatitis viruses in about five minutes. It also destroys the surface antigen of type B Hepatitis virus and is said to
shown better killing effects in acidic conditions (Sodium dichloroisocyanurate)23. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a
Lentivirus (a subgroup of Retrovirus) that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which is a mortal disease. HIV is
very sensitive to action from hypochlorites and thus specific concentrations of NaDCC can be used for disinfection of soiled surfaces,
dirty surfaces and also for the decontamination of blood and body fluid spillages (Bloomfield, 1990)24. NaDCC granules (in adequate
concentrations) when dissolved in water provide a much longer and stable supply of hypochlorous acid producing higher level of
available chlorine that could effectively be used on spillages for inactivation of HIV viruses (Van Bueren, 1995)25.
Activity of Ef-Chlor against Fungal Species
Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts from the genus Candida. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate was tested against 66
strains of fungi. It was able to kill Candida rapidly in non cultural conditions but the growth phase of yeast influenced its activity.
NaDCC required a longer contact time than yeast to work against the mycelial form of Aspergillus and Penicillium (D'Auria, 1989 )12.
Aspergillus causes Aspergillosis resulting in acute and chronic lung infections whereas Penicllium produces mycotoxins which are a
toxic contaminant. NaDCC represented a synergistic antifungal activity when it was combined with gamma irradiation in specific
doses against Penicillium expansum on pear fruits (Jeong, 2015 )26.
Microbial Testing of Ef-Chlor (3.5 mg) tablets.
For testing the effectiveness of Ef-Chlor, it’s activity was visualised against 5 major species of bacteria responsible for causing
water-borne diseases. Ef-Chlor tablets 3.5 mg that are meant for drinking water purification were used which demonstrate effective
activity with 4 PPM of available chlorine when used for purifying 500 ml of water. Table 1 mentions the bacterial species on which
the action of Ef-Chlor tablets was analyzed. These bacterial species were cultured using 2 types of water – Normal water and Ef-Chlor
treated water and there 3rd dilution (10-3
) was streaked on specific growth media. The plates were incubated at 37°C in incubators
after streaking and then presence of bacterial colonies was checked after 12 hours and 24 hours of incubation. The reporting was done
on the mentioned time periods for the media plates with normal bacterial culture and Ef-Chlor treated bacterial culture. Table 2 gives a
detailed information on the Microbial testing done mentioning the media used and CFU count observed in the plates. Figure 1 to
Figure 10 display the growth observed in normal bacterial culture and the Ef-Chlor treated bacterial culture of the 5 different bacterial
species selected for analysis.