Water is an essential component in the history of Iran. Due to the unfavorable distribution of surface water and the fluctuation of yearly seasonal streams, to fulfill water demands, ancient Iranians have tried to provide a better condition for utilization of water. Accordingly, elegant designs like qanats became an indispensable element of hydraulic systems, while institutional frameworks were innovated to be combined with in water resource management. Evidence shows that hydraulic structures and water establishments date back thousands of years known as cultural heritage. Besides, the ancient Iranians have realized the importance of an organization to supervise irrigation and water conveyance. Thus, during the Achaemenid and Sasanian Empires, water engineering was developed significantly through the whole territory. The governmental endorsements associated with contemporary engineered structures have made extensive innovations in water systems, such as canals, watermills, water treatment, water storage, piping and construction. The infrastructure fulfilled a wide range of necessities of a civilized country and assisted in achieving its golden era. Consequently, this paper is aimed at studying ancient water resource management and technological approaches in Iran.