Water Reuse Applications Using Membrane Technology
An analysis of a variety of full-scale water reclamation and reuse systems was conducted to evaluate the differences between those using conventional and membrane-based treatment technology. It was anticipated that membrane-based systems would provide advantages, but it was not clear which advantages would be most significant for various applications. The results confirm advantages for membrane-based systems, including improved reliability but also reduced complexity and improved operability due to the broad range of contaminants that can be removed in membrane-based systems, especially MBRs. The result is that fewer unit processes are often needed in membrane-based system than conventional systems design to achieve the same reclaimed water quality. This feature can then lead to reduced complexity and improved operability. The ability of membrane-based systems to remove a broad range on contaminants can also lead to improved contaminant removal for a specified system. Reduced chemical use can lead to improved sustainability for membrane-based systems. The advantages of membrane-based systems often increase as reclaimed water quality requirements increase. The cost-effectiveness of membrane-based water reclamation systems compared to conventional water reclamation systems has also been demonstrated in several instances.