What is Biomass Pellets Energy

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Biomass pellets energy means the energy made from biomass.

What is biomass?

Biomass refers to all the organic matters that store energy from photosynthesis. Therefore biomass in most cases means plants instead of animal.

What is the chemical composition of biomass?

Biomass is carbon based, so it contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and also other chemical components.

But most importantly, biomass contains cellulose and lignin.

Lignin is a kind of complex polymer which mainly derived from wood. The more lignin a plant has, the stronger it is. So the strong wood contains more lignin than weak straw. Lignin does not have smelting point, but will soften at high temperature and become adhesive. In this case, the pellet mill can generate great heat when pressing biomass and the lignin will soften and adhere cellulose. Besides, the great pressure caused by the pellet mill can press the biomass tightly into solid pellets.

What biomass energy can be made into pellets?

Not all biomasses are suitable for pellet making. Only those with high lignin content can be utilized to make pellets. Common seen raw materials are as follows:

Wood chips, sawdust, alfalfa, bagasse, straw, stalk, bamboo, peanut shell, peanut shell, EFB, grass, waste paper, etc.

Why do we use biomass pellets energy?

As what we know, traditionally we use fossil fuels as the main energy source, which include coal, oil and gas. However, fossil fuels are formed over thousands of years, so they are in fact precious. Besides, the burning of coal always release much CO2 and even SO2: the CO2 may cause greenhouse effect (which is also called global warming), while SO2 can harm the atmosphere.

Unlike fossil fuels, biomass pellets energy is clean and renewable since they are made from plants. Some plants like crop and grass can grow every year. Others like wood may take longer time to grow, but what we use for pellets making are usually wood waste like sawdust or wood shavings.

Besides, biomass pellets energy has more energy efficiency than its raw materials and coal, and it cost the least among common seen efficient energy sources. Read the graph below for more information.

Fuel Type


Units to
1,000,000 BTU

Unit Cost

Cost to
1,000,000 BTU



0.08 cord



Wood Pellets


0.08 ton



Natural Gas


12.5 therm



Propane Gas


13.5 gal





0.05 ton



Fuel Oil


9.0 gal








What’s more, now biomass pellets making is also supported by many national governments like in UK, Germany, Italy, France, etc. So making biomass pellets energy has become a world trend.


After reading the above content, most people may be curious: what are used to produce biomass pellets energy?

The biomass pellets making include the following equipments:

Hammer mill

It is a kind of machine used to cut large pieces of biomass materials that have about 30mm diameter into much smaller sizes of 2-5mm to be suitable for pelletizing. It is one of the most important pre-processing equipment for biomass pellets making.

Drying machine

Another important piece of equipment in biomass pellets production, which is used to decrease biomass raw material moisture content from about 25% or even much higher to around 10%. If the raw material moisture is too high, it will decrease pellets productivity and even do harm to biomass pellet making machine.

Biomass pellet mill

The core part in a complete biomass pellet plant. There are small biomass pellet mill and large biomass pellet mill with different capacities. Small biomass pellet mill is usually used for small scale pellets production like for small farms or home heating, while large biomass pellet mill is often used in complete pellet production line for industrial use.

Cooling machine

It is used to cool the pellets which just come out from biomass pellet mill, since biomass pellets often have high temperature of about 70-80℃. After cooling (usually the cooler is also able to sieve the pellets), the biomass pellets will reach room temperature.

Pellet packing machine

If you make biomass pellets for sale, the pellet packing machine is a necessity.

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