Keywords: electricity deregulation, green certificates, Kyoto Protocol, Wind Atlas, wind evolution, Italy, network connections, wind power, wind energy, regulation, renewable energy
Wind energy in Italy: regulatory and technical aspects
Italy has carried out the deregulation of the electricity sector. The EU 'Renewable Directive' gave Italy a very ambitious burden sharing: by 2010, 25% of the demand will be faced by renewable energy against a 1997 baseline of 16%. To sustain such development, the producers/importers have a yearly obligation to inject into the system 'green production': in 2002 by 2% increasing to 3.05% by 2006 of their 'conventional production'. Further increases are anticipated after 2006. The obligation is satisfied by issuing to the renewable production 'Green Certificates' (GCs), a coupon not technology-related but traded in addition to the sale of renewable energy. The GCs' mechanism and the formation of their prices are described. The wind production is expected to grow from the present 1.5 TWh up to 5–6 TWh by 2010, in keeping with the targets of the Kyoto Protocol. The paper describes the regulatory, connection, system problems of the wind source in the above-mentioned national and international framework.