- Authors / Editors:
- Johannes Simon Vrouwenvelder, Joop Kruithof and Mark C.M. van Loosdrecht
- Price: £ 99.00 / US$ 178.20 / € 133.65
IWA Members Price: £ 74.25 / US$ 133.65 / € 100.24
- Print ISSN:
- Mar. 2011
This book relates biomass accumulation in spiral wound RO and NF membrane elements with membrane performance and hydrodynamics and determines parameters influencing biofouling. It focuses on the development of biomass in the feed-concentrate (feed-spacer) channel and its effect on pressure drop and flow distribution. It can be used to develop an integral strategy to control biofouling in spiral wound membrane systems.
Most past and present methods to control biofouling have not been very successful. An overview of several potential complementary approaches to solve biofouling is given and an integrated approach for biofouling control is proposed.
Introduction; Biofouling studies in NF and RO installations; Membrane fouling simulator development; Sensitive pressure drop measurement; Nuclear magnetic resonance measurement; Three-dimensional numerical model development; Effect of flux; Effect of feed spacer; Three-dimensional numerical model based evaluation of experimental data; Effect of substrate load and linear flow velocity; Effect of flow regime on biomass accumulation and morphology; Phosphate limitation to control biofouling; Integrated approach for biofouling control.