Caledonia Inv Co Ltd

Caledonia Inv Co Ltd

Caledonia Inv Co Ltd

ecoProactive™ is an inorganic latent hydraulic binder for soil stabilization applications and pavement layers.Our manufacturing base will be situated within central SE Asia.Modern highways are being built at an alarming pace. However, it is the link roads that feed these highways which are the lifeblood of the local economies.

Company details

Wngtun Street , Kowloon , Hong Kong China
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Business Type:
Manufacturer
Industry Type:
Construction & Construction Materials
Market Focus:
Globally (various continents)
Year Founded:
2006
Employees:
11-100
Turnover:
1,000,000 - 10,000,000 €

There is no region of the world where disparities of infrastructure development and wealth distribution are as evident as in the SE Asia region.

From the hyper technological metropolis to remote and inaccessible villages, this vast region is a real challenge for transport planners and operators and certainly requires innovative and imaginative thinking.

Modern highways are being built at an alarming pace. However, it is the link roads that feed these highways which are the lifeblood of the local economies.

Being able to traverse these minor roads all year round, transporting goods and linking communities is now paramount to these regions.

Rural roads are the last link of the transport network, however, they often form the most important connection in terms of providing access for the rural population.

The permanent or seasonal absence of road access is a constraining factor in terms of providing rural communities with essential services such as education, primary health care, water supply, local markets as well as economic opportunities.

The availability of such services and opportunities are difficult to sustain without a good quality and well-maintained rural road network, which provides regular and efficient transport access throughout the year.

Rural Roads

Unlike our competitors, ecoProactive™ do not claim that one product will have a universal application to cover all types of soil and all types of climatic conditions. For this reason considerable time and effort developing powders for specific regions with particular characteristics. It should be noted that ecoProactive™ is constantly researching our products to improve the range and types of application available and fresh sources of raw materials.

Plant and Labour

A tractor with mechanical rotovator or cultivator attachment.

Water-bowser with flow bar.

A ten ton vibrating roller.

Grader required for larger projects.

And of course adequate labour.

Labourers
Tractor Water Browser Roller Grader

How ecoProactiveworks in Asia

The extremely low capillary absorption of ecoProactive™ allows the chemical reaction to continue in the most adverse wet conditions.

The unique blend of ingredients prevents water from entering the layer while retaining the moisture within the layer for hydration and strength gain.

The low absorption also slows down the rate of thermal heat in the pavement layer thus reducing the stresses and strains due to temperature fluctuations at night.

How ecoProactiveworks in Europe

The unique subtle change in the blend of the ecoProactive™ prevents moisture from entering or leaching from the treated layer and eliminates the major source of frost damage which is water.

The low capillary absorption eliminates the water entering the layer during thawing thus preventing heave damage.

The low thermal conductivity slows down the rate of heat absorption during the day and reduces the temperature range within the layer which lessens the stresses and strains on the pavement layer.

Europe Roads

Examples of damage due to frost heave

Durability and Volume Stability

The U.K. Transport Research Laboratory frost heave test indicates that CBM show negligible heave when their compressive strength exceeds 2N/mm2. In other words the specimens still maintain their integrity at this strength and can be considered as bound materials and thus superior to unbound materials.

With other HBM designed to achieve a lower strength i.e. CBR values in the range of 15 – 50% past practice has submitted the mixture to frost heave testing and apply the maximum heave criteria – about 12mm that is applicable to unbound materials. However, with such a degree of heave the integrity of the HBM is actually destroyed during the test and it is impossible to know whether the HBM can still be considered 'bound' and thus perform as 'bound' in the pavement.

Recently using data accumulated during the drafting of the European Standards for HBM, it has been possible to formulate more relevant durability recommendations for these lower strength HBM also including a limit for indirect tensile strength based on French and Belgian experience. The recommendations shown in the table, it should be noted, apply to all HBM irrespective of the frost susceptibility of the aggregate or the soil in the unbound condition.

TRL Logo

Widely different climate conditions and soil types as shown in the previous photographic examples convinced us that research into providing the basic ingredients but with subtle blending changes and activators would provide a stabilizing powder that would meet the difficult and varied demands of each region. We now have 2 variants of stabilizing powder 1 for Asia and 1 for Europe and we are currently involved in a programme of research and development further enhancing the efficiency of our stabilizing powders.

ecoProactive™ slow hydraulic binders comply, and exceed current European Standards for durability and volume stability. These tests are considered mandatory as part of an overall durability assessment.

ingredients

European Variant
Strength N/mm2
Sealed cured 07 day 1.56
Sealed cured 28 day 2.40
Water cured 28 day 2.00
Asian Variant
Strength N/mm2
Sealed cured 07 day 1.36
Sealed cured 28 day 2.70
Water cured 28 day 2.00

Mixture Property
Medium and coarse grained aggregate Fine–grained, i.e. Clays and chalks (Rc typically ~ 1MPa.)
Strength Rc > 3MPa Rit > -0.2/0.25MPa
Immersed Strength Rimm > 80% Rimm > 80%
Frost Heave Limits Test not necessary if compliance with above Aim for no heave but pragmatically <2 or 3 mm
SO4 and S Limits Limits not usually necessary Yes limits required – refer to BP/16

Rc denotes compressive strength.

Rit denotes indirect tensile strength.

Rimm denotes the ratio of the strength of the specimens cured unprotected in water after an initial period of sealed curing, to the strength of the specimens cured totally in sealed conditions.

It should be noted, that these recommendations apply to all HBM irrespective of the frost susceptibility of the aggregate or soil in the unbound state.

 

Capillary Absorption Test
UK Materials Asian Materials
Fresh wet density – kg/m3 1950 1940
28 day sealed cube strength – N/mm2 2.4 2.6
28 day immersed cured cube strength – N/mm2 2.0 2.25
Capillary absorption – mg/mm2 0.05 0.37
Cat cube strength from D specimens – N/mm2 2.45 1.8

The very rigorous Capillary Absorption Test (CAT) is used to assess the weathering performance for pre-cast concrete cast stone durability specifies a maximum CAT value of 1 mg/mm2

Comparative results for different 'concretes' are given below.

Material/Type Age Average Density – kg/mm2 CAT – mg/mm2
Limestone Rock 18 million years 2400 0.3 & 0.52
Cast Stone 28 Days 1990 0.19 & 0.30
CIC ecoProactive™ 28 Days 1950 0.05 & 0.37

This test method was used in view of the fact that both pre-cast stone which is instantly de mouldable and HBM are produced from similar consistency mixes requiring machine compaction to achieve the desired close finish and durable performance.

stones

Indirect Tensile Strengths & Stiffness Values

The following results show the strengths obtained from a variety of materials, moisture contents and grading curves using ecoProactive™ slow hydraulic binder.

The last result shows a comparison of Bituminous Pavement Layers tensile strength and Concrete Pavement Layer tensile strength.

Mixture of clay, soil and aggregate from trench arisings

0–20mm. Arisings 5% ecoProactive™ 10% Moisture content
Fail flex Flex Str. Fail Comp Comp. Str.
42 1 16332 10.2
45 1.1 15642 9.8
42 1 14975 9.4
41 1 15644 9.8
41 1 15422 9.6
43 1 14522 9.1
41 1 16432 10.3
40 0.9 14274 8.9
38 0.9 14992 9.4
39 0.9 15478 9.7
42 1 16422 10.3
44 1 17855 11.2
Mean Flex Mean Comp
0.97 9.79
0–20mm. Arisings 5% ecoProactive™ 15% Moisture content
Fail flex Flex Str. Fail Comp Comp. Str.
35 0.8 10233 6.4
36 0.8 11212 7
32 0.7 9865 6.2
31 0.7 9985 6.2
31 0.7 9862 6.2
30 0.7 9156 5.7
25 0.6 9677 6
26 0.6 10212 6.4
26 0.6 9875 6.2
25 0.6 9744 6.1
24 0.6 9763 6.1
29 0.7 9566 6
Mean Flex Mean Comp
0.68 6.21
0–20mm. Arisings 5% ecoProactive™ 20% Moisture content
Fail flex Flex Str. Fail Comp Comp. Str.
6 0.1 9875 6.2
8 0.2 9744 6.1
12 0.3 9763 6.1
5 0.1 9566 6
9 0.2 2453 1.5
7 0.2 2175 1.4
10 0.2 2655 1.7
6 0.1 2123 1.3
12 0.3 2566 1.6
8 0.2 2543 1.6
6 0.1 2432 1.5
3 0.1 2475 1.5
Mean Flex Mean Comp
0.18 3.04

20mm Ballast (no 2.36mm. down fines)

Ballast (no fines) 5% ecoProactive™ 5% Moisture content
Fail flex Flex Str. Fail Comp Comp. Str.
10 0.2 19566 12.2
8 0.2 20324 12.7
6 0.1 25421 15.9
3 0.1 24133 15.1
12 0.2 21533 13.5
13 0.2 22412 14
10 0.2 24566 15.4
9 0.1 21423 13.4
9 0.1 24566 15.4
8 0.2 21452 13.4
10 0.3 21633 13.5
9 0.1 22424 14
Mean Flex Mean Comp
0.21 14.03
Fail flex Flex Str. Fail Comp Comp. Str.
5 0.1 19566 12.2
6 0.1 20324 12.7
6 0.1 25421 15.9
5 0.1 24133 15.1
5 0.1 21533 13.5
6 0.1 22412 14
9 0.2 24566 15.4
1 0.1 21423 13.4
5 0.1 24566 15.4
4 0.1 21452 13.4
7 0.2 21633 13.5
3 0.1 22424 14
Mean Flex Mean Comp
0.12 14.03

0–10mm. Dolomite Graded

Fail flex Flex Str. Fail Comp Comp. Str.
74 1.7 32562 20.4
98 2.3 31562 19.7
92 2.2 32499 20.3
99 2.3 31560 19.7
75 1.8 35623 22.3
62 1.5 31445 19.7
84 2 32456 20.3
96 2.2 34775 21.7
85 1.7 29856 18.7
94 2.3 34520 21.6
97 2.1 33420 20.9
93 2.2 33482 20.9
Mean Flex Mean Comp
2.03 20.51

Blast Furnace Slag

0–10 Blast Furnace Slag 5% ecoProactive™ 10% Moisture content
Fail flex Flex Str. Fail Comp Comp. Str.
22 0.5 24566 15.4
21 0.5 22356 14
26 0.6 24752 15.5
24 0.6 24762 15.5
21 0.5 24763 15.5
27 0.6 22741 14.2
23 0.5 21563 13.5
24 0.6 25744 16.1
18 0.4 26575 16.6
21 0.5 24355 15.2
19 0.4 22145 13.8
25 0.6 24525 15.3
Mean Flex Mean Comp
0.53 15.04

Indirect Tensile Strength Comparison

Granular Sub Base
As granular sub base is an unbound material it has no theoretical Tensile Strength

30MPA Compressive Strength Concrete is in the range 2.2–2.7

Dry Lean Concrete Indirect Tensile Strength is in the range 0.8–1.1