Canarina Environmental Software

60 services found

Services

  • Airport Noise Consultants

    Airport Noise Consultants

    Canarina Algoritmos Numericos has been an airport noise consulting firm. Our focus has remained solely on providing one-on-one, custom solutions for acoustic issues at airports and surrounding communities. Aircraft noise is produced during various phases of a flight: on the ground while parked such as auxiliary power units, while taxiing, on run-up from propeller and jet exhaust, during take off, underneath and lateral to departure and arrival paths,...

  • NOx air dispersion · consultants

    NOx air dispersion · consultants

    NOx is a generic term for the mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide). In areas of high motor vehicle traffic, such as in large cities, the amount of nitrogen oxides emitted into the atmosphere as air pollution can be quite significant. NOx gasses are formed everywhere where there is combustion, like in an engine. They are produced from the reaction of nitrogenand oxygen gases in the air during combustion, especially at high...

  • Hg releases in the environment · consultants

    Hg releases in the environment · consultants

    Canarina Algoritmos Numericos has been an Hg air and water dispersion consulting firm. The human-generated mercury emissions can be divided into the following estimated percentages: 65% from stationary combustion, of which coal-fired power plants are the largest aggregate source (40% of U.S. mercury emissions in 1999). 11% from gold production. The three largest point sources for mercury emissions in the U.S. are the three largest gold mines. 6.8% from...

  • Noise barrier design · consultants

    Noise barrier design · consultants

    Canarina Algoritmos Numericos is s noise barrier design firm. Noise barrier (also called a soundwall, sound berm, sound barrier, or acoustical barrier) is an exterior structure designed to protect sensitive land uses from noise pollution. Noise barriers are the most effective method of mitigating roadway, railway, and industrial noise sources – other than cessation of the source activity or use of source controls. In the case of surface transportation...

  • Marine outfall design · consultants

    Marine outfall design · consultants

    A marine outfall discharges municipal or industrial wastewater, stormwater, combined sewer overflows, cooling water, or brine effluents from water desalination plants to the sea. Usually they discharge under the sea's surface (submarine outfall). The main advantages of marine outfalls for the discharge of wastewater are: the natural dilution and dispersion of organic matter, pathogens and other pollutants, the ability to keep the sewage field submerged...

  • Industrial noise reduction · consultants

    Industrial noise reduction · consultants

    Canarina Algoritmos Numéricos, S.L. provides environmental consultancy services for projects involving the assessment of industrial noise. Traditionally, occupational noise has been a hazard linked to heavy industries such as ship-building and associated only with noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). Modern thinking in occupational safety and health identifies noise as hazardous to worker safety and health in many places of employment and by a variety of...

  • Industrial wastewater treatment · consultants

    Industrial wastewater treatment · consultants

    Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated by anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment. Toxic materials including many organic materials, metals (such as zinc, silver, cadmium, thallium, etc.) acids, alkalis, non-metallic elements (such as arsenic or selenium) are generally resistant to biological processes unless very dilute....

  • Pb air dispersion · consultants

    Pb air dispersion · consultants

    Canarina Algoritmos Numéricos, S.L. provides environmental consultancy services for projects involving Pb air dispersion. Lead that is emitted into the atmosphere can be inhaled, or it can be ingested after it settles out of the air. It is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and is believed to have adverse effects on the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, kidneys, and the immune system. Lead as a soil contaminant is a widespread...

  • Particulate matter (PM) · air pollution · consultants

    Particulate matter (PM) · air pollution · consultants

    Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. In contrast, aerosol refers to particles and the gas together. Sources of particulate matter can be man made or natural. Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels...

  • Production of noise maps · service

    Production of noise maps · service

    Canarina Algoritmos Numéricos, S.L. provides noise maps. The main noise indicators for noise mapping are Lday, Levening, Lnight and Lden (day-evening-night). These are long-term averaged sound levels, determined over all the correspondent periods of a year. All of these indicators are defined in terms of A-weighted decibels (dBA, dB(A)). According to the END, the acoustic indicators can be determined by computation or measurement methods. But computation...

  • Wastewaters · iron and steel · consultants

    Wastewaters · iron and steel · consultants

    Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated by industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use. Cooling waters are inevitably contaminated with products especially ammonia and cyanide. Production of coke from coal in coking plants also requires water cooling and the use of water in by-products separation. Wastewaters include acidic rinse...

  • Volatile organic compounds · air pollution · consultants

    Volatile organic compounds · air pollution · consultants

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are an important outdoor air pollutant. In this field of organic pollutants they are often divided into the separate categories of methane (CH4) and non-methane (NMVOCs) compounds. Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming. Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also significant greenhouse gases via their role in creating ozone and in prolonging the life of methane in the...

  • Train noise · consultants

    Train noise · consultants

    Train noise is sound produced by vehicles using a trackbed or rail guidance system. Trains include freight, long haul passenger, commuter rail, metro or mass transit and light rail systems. Train noise can be a type of environmental noise. When a train is moving, there are several distinct sounds such as the locomotive engine noise and the wheels turning on the railroad track. The air displacement of a train or subway car in a tunnel can create different...

  • Wastewaters · mines and querries · consultants

    Wastewaters · mines and querries · consultants

    Canarina Algoritmos Numéricos, S.L. provides environmental consultancy services for projects involving marine wastewaters. The principal waste-waters associated with mines and quarries are slurries of rock particles in water. These arise from rainfall washing exposed surfaces and haul roads and also from rock washing and grading processes. Volumes of water can be very high, especially rainfall related arisings on large sites. Some specialized separation...

  • Wastewaters · food industries · consultants

    Wastewaters · food industries · consultants

    Wastewater generated from agricultural and food operations has distinctive characteristics that set it apart from common municipal wastewater managed by public or private wastewater treatment plants throughout the world: it is biodegradable and nontoxic, but that has high concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (SS).[1] The constituents of food and agriculture wastewater are often complex to predict due to the differences...

  • SOx Sulfur oxides · air pollution · consultants

    SOx Sulfur oxides · air pollution · consultants

    SOx Sulfur oxides - especially sulphur dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula SO2. SO2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulphur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of SO2, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NO2, forms H2SO4, and thus acid rain. This is one of the causes for concern over the environmental impact of the use of these...

  • Environmental noise · consultants

    Environmental noise · consultants

    The directive 2002/49/EC should give a common approach intended to avoid, prevent or reduce the harmful effects of environmental noise. The main target is an integrated noise management. In the first step the competent authorities in the European member states had to produce strategic noise maps for major roads, railways, airports and agglomerations. The second step is to inform and consult the public. The third step is producing local action plans to...

  • Noise health effects · consultants

    Noise health effects · consultants

    Elevated workplace or other noise can cause hearing impairment, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, annoyance and sleep disturbance. Changes in the immune system and birth defects have been attributed to noise exposure, but evidence is limited. Although some presbycusis may occur naturally with age, in many developed nations the cumulative impact of noise is sufficient to impair the hearing of a large fraction of the population over the course of a...

  • Wastewaters · complex organic chemicals industry · consultants

    Wastewaters · complex organic chemicals industry · consultants

    A range of industries manufacture or use complex organic chemicals. These include pesticides, pharmaceuticals, paints and dyes, petro-chemicals, detergents, plastics, paper pollution, etc. Waste waters can be contaminated by feed-stock materials, by-products, product material in soluble or particulate form, washing and cleaning agents, solvents and added value products such as plasticisers. Treatment facilities that do not need control of their effluent...

  • Carbon monoxide · air dispersion · consultants

    Carbon monoxide · air dispersion · consultants

    Carbon monoxide is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common type of fatal air poisoning in many countries. Carbon monoxide is colourless, odorless, and tasteless, but highly toxic. It combines with hemoglobin to produce carboxyhemoglobin, which is ineffective for delivering oxygen to bodily tissues. Concentrations as...

  • Persistent free radicals · air dispersion · consultants

    Persistent free radicals · air dispersion · consultants

    Radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons on an open shell configuration. Persistent free radicals connected to airborne fine particles could cause cardiopulmonary disease. Radicals, if allowed to run free in the body, are believed to be involved in degenerative diseases, senescence (the aging process), and cancers. Free radicals play an important role in combustion, atmospheric chemistry,...

  • Noise mitigation · consultants

    Noise mitigation · consultants

    Canarina Algoritmos Numéricos, S.L. provides environmental consultancy services for projects involving the assessment of noise mitigation. Noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce noise pollution. Roadway noise and aircraft noise are the most pervasive sources of environmental noise worldwide, and little change has been effected in source control in these areas since the start of the problem.The main areas of noise mitigation or abatement...

  • Cadmium · air pollution · consultants

    Cadmium · air pollution · consultants

    Cadmium is an environmental hazard. Human exposures to environmental cadmium are primarily the result of fossil fuel combustion, phosphate fertilizers, natural sources, iron and steel production, cement production and related activities, non-ferrous metals production, and municipal solid waste incineration. Inhalation of cadmium-containing fumes can result initially in metal fume fever but may progress to chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and...

  • ISO 9613 · noise pollution · consultants

    ISO 9613 · noise pollution · consultants

    ISO 9613 describes a method for calculating the attenuation of sound during propagation outdoors in order to predict the levels of environmental noise at a distance from a variety of sources. The method predicts the equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (as described in ISO 1996) under meteorological conditions. Canarina Environmental Software provides environmental consultancy services for projects involving the assessment of ISO 9613.

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) · air dispersion · consultants

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) · air dispersion · consultants

    Prolonged exposure to moderate concentrations can cause acidosis and adverse effects on calcium phosphorus metabolism resulting in increased calcium deposits in soft tissue. Carbon dioxide is toxic to the heart and causes diminished contractile force. Toxicity and its effects increase with the concentration of CO2, here given in volume percent of CO2 in the air: 1% can cause drowsiness with prolonged exposure. At 2% it is mildly narcotic and causes...

  • Directive 2002/49/EC · environmental noise · consultants

    Directive 2002/49/EC · environmental noise · consultants

    Directive 2002/49/EC: Although some previous approaches had been made, the main international agreement, definitions, and basis for noise mapping were born in relation to the Environmental Noise Directive of the European Parliament and Council (Directive 2002/49/EC of 25 June 2002, commonly referred to as 'the END'). EU Member States are required to produce strategic noise maps in their main cities, near the main transport infrastructures and near...

  • Wastewater · nutrient runoff · consultants

    Wastewater · nutrient runoff · consultants

    Farmers can develop and implement nutrient management plans to mitigate impacts on water quality. Nitrogen and phosphorus are key pollutants found in runoff, and they are applied to farmland in several ways: commercial fertilizer, animal manure, municipal or industrial wastewater (effluent) or sludge. These chemicals may also enter runoff from crop residues, irrigation water, wildlife, and atmospheric deposition. Canarina Environmental Software...

  • Truck noise pollution · consultants

    Truck noise pollution · consultants

    Canarina Environmental Software provides environmental consultancy services for projects involving the assessment of truck noise. Trucks contribute to air, noise, and water pollution similarly to automobiles. Trucks may emit lower air pollution emissions than cars per equivalent vehicle mass, although the absolute level per vehicle distance traveled is higher, and diesel particulate matter is especially problematic for health. Continuous sounds are...

  • Copper air dispersion · consultants

    Copper air dispersion · consultants

    Canarina Environmental Software provides environmental consultancy services for projects involving the assessment of copper air dispersion. Chronic copper toxicity does not normally occur in humans because of transport systems that regulate absorption and excretion. Autosomal recessive mutations in copper transport proteins can disable these systems, leading to Wilson's disease with copper accumulation and cirrhosis of the liver in persons who have...

  • Ammonia NH3 air pollution · consultants

    Ammonia NH3 air pollution · consultants

    Ammonia NH3 is emitted from agricultural processes. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Canarina...

  • EU strategic noise maps · consultants

    EU strategic noise maps · consultants

    Canarina Environmental Software provides environmental consultancy services for projects involving the assessment of strategic noise maps. EU Member States are required to produce strategic noise maps in their main cities, near the main transport infrastructures and near industrial sites. The main goals of the END are to make a diagnosis of noise pollution in Europe that can lead to action plans, and a noise management that can be implemented in terms...

  • Environmental impact of roads · consultants

    Environmental impact of roads · consultants

    The environmental impact of roads (both positive and negative) include the local effects of highways (public roads) such as on noise, water pollution, habitat destruction/disturbance and local air quality; and the wider effects which may include climate change from vehicle emissions. The design, construction and management of roads, parking and other related facilities as well as the design and regulation of vehicles can change the impacts to varying...

  • Background noise · ambient noise pollution · consultants

    Background noise · ambient noise pollution · consultants

    In acoustics and specifically in acoustical engineering, background noise or ambient noise is any sound other than the sound being monitored. Background noise is a form of noise pollution or interference. Background noise is an important concept in setting noise regulations. Examples of background noises are environmental noises such as waves, traffic noise, alarms, people talking, bioacoustic noise from animals or birds and mechanical noise from devices...

  • Measuring odor concentration · consultants

    Measuring odor concentration · consultants

    Odor concentration is an odor's pervasiveness. To measure odor sensation, an odor is diluted to certain amounts to reach a detection or recognition threshold. The detection threshold is the concentration of an odor in air when 50% of a population can distinguish between the odorous sample and an odor free blank. The recognition threshold is the concentration of an odor in air in which 50% of a population can discern from an odorous sample and odor free...

  • Odor in the indoor environment · consultants

    Odor in the indoor environment · consultants

    Occupants should expect remediation from disturbing and unexpected odors that disturb concentration, diminish productivity, evoke symptoms, and generally increase the dislike for a particular environment. It is important to set occupational exposure limits (OELs) to ensure the health and safety or workers as well as comfort, because exposure to chemicals can elicit physiological and biochemical changes in the upper respiratory system. Standards are hard...

  • A-weighting · noise pollution · consultants

    A-weighting · noise pollution · consultants

    A-weighting is the most commonly used of a family of curves defined in the International standard IEC 61672:2003 and various national standards relating to the measurement of sound pressure level. The weighting is employed by arithmetically adding a table of values, listed by octave or third-octave bands, to the measured sound pressure levels in dB. The resulting octave band measurements are usually added (logarithmic method) to provide a single...

  • Environmental impact assessment · consultants

    Environmental impact assessment · consultants

    The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as 'the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made.'The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the ensuing environmental impacts when deciding whether to proceed with a...

  • Environmental monitoring · consultants

    Environmental monitoring · consultants

    Canarina Environmental Software provides environmental consultancy services for projects involving the assessment of environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring describes the processes and activities that need to take place to characterise and monitor the quality of the environment. Environmental monitoring is used in the preparation of environmental impact assessments, as well as in many circumstances in which human activities carry a risk of...

  • Environmental health · consultants

    Environmental health · consultants

    Canarina Environmental Software provides environmental consultancy services for projects involving the assessment of environmental health. Environmental health is defined by the World Health Organization as: Those aspects of the human health and disease that are determined by factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and controlling factors in the environment that can potentially affect health. Environmental...

  • Environmental chemistry · consultants

    Environmental chemistry · consultants

    Environmental chemistry involves first understanding how the uncontaminated environment works, which chemicals in what concentrations are present naturally, and with what effects. Without this it would be impossible to accurately study the effects humans have on the environment through the release of chemicals. Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. It should not be...

  • Atmospheric dispersion modeling · consultants

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling · consultants

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling is the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse in the ambient atmosphere. It is performed with computer programs that solve the mathematical equations and algorithms which simulate the pollutant dispersion. The dispersion models are used to estimate or to predict the downwind concentration of air pollutants or toxins emitted from sources such as industrial plants, vehicular traffic or accidental chemical...

  • Environmental science · consultants

    Environmental science · consultants

    Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and biological sciences, (including but not limited to Ecology, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Soil Science, Geology, Atmospheric Science and Geography) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Related areas...

  • Environmental impact design · consultants

    Environmental impact design · consultants

    Environmental impact design is concerned with modifications to the design of development projects to achieve positive impacts - externalities which benefit the environment and raise the stock of public goods. Examples of positive impacts include: Habitat creation as a result of afforestation projects, coastal management projects which contribute to ecological and recreational objectives, flood defense projects which create greenways, public open space...

  • Simulation tools · noise pollution · consultants

    Simulation tools · noise pollution · consultants

    Canarina Environmental Software provides environmental consultancy services for projects involving the assessment of noise pollution. There are several models for making noise maps. Some of them use empirical models (for instance, INM for airports noise mapping), but most of the models are based in the physics of propagation of sound outdoors (defined in ISO 9613). The use of these software packages is quite easy, and the accuracy of results is very...

  • Odor intensity calculation · consultants

    Odor intensity calculation · consultants

    Odor intensity is the perceived strength of odor sensation. This intensity property is used to locate the source of odors and perhaps most directly related to odor nuisance. Perceived strength of the odor sensation is measured in conjunction with odor concentration. This can be modeled by the Weber-Fechner law: I= a * log(c)+b[18] I is the perceived psychological intensity at the dilution step on the butanol scale, a is the Weber-Fechner coefficient, C...

  • Environmental impact statement · consultants

    Environmental impact statement · consultants

    An environmental impact statement (EIS), under United States environmental law, is a document required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for certain actions 'significantly affecting the quality of the human environment'.[1] An EIS is a tool for decision making. It describes the positive and negative environmental effects of a proposed action, and it usually also lists one or more alternative actions that may be chosen instead of the action...

  • Environmental impact of pesticides · consultants

    Environmental impact of pesticides · consultants

    The environmental impact of pesticides is often greater than what is intended by those who use them. Over 98% of sprayed insecticides and 95% of herbicides reach a destination other than their target species, including nontarget species, air, water, bottom sediments, and food. Pesticide contaminates land and water when it escapes from production sites and storage tanks, when it runs off from fields, when it is discarded, when it is sprayed aerially, and...

  • Marine pollution · consultants

    Marine pollution · consultants

    Marine pollution occurs when harmful effects, or potentially harmful effects, can result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms. Most sources of marine pollution are land based. The pollution often comes from nonpoint sources such as agricultural runoff and wind blown debris. Many potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles which are then...

  • Water pollution · consultants

    Water pollution · consultants

    Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. Canarina Environmental Software provides environmental consultancy services for...

  • Air pollution · consultants

    Air pollution · consultants

    A substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment is known as an air pollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made. Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary. Usually, primary pollutants are directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide...

  • Sustainable development · consultants

    Sustainable development · consultants

    Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social challenges facing humanity. As early as the 1970s 'sustainability' was employed to describe an economy 'in equilibrium with basic ecological support systems.' Ecologists have pointed to The Limits to Growth, and presented the alternative of a 'steady state economy' in order to address environmental concerns. The field of sustainable development can...

  • Freshwater environmental quality

    Freshwater environmental quality

    Freshwater environmental quality parameters are the natural and man-made chemical, biological and microbiological characteristics of rivers, lakes and ground-waters, the ways they are measured and the ways that they change. The values or concentrations attributed to such parameters can be used to describe the pollution status of an environment, its biotic status or to predict the likelihood or otherwise of a particular organisms being present. Monitoring...

  • Chlorofluorocarbons · air dispersion · consultants

    Chlorofluorocarbons · air dispersion · consultants

    However, the atmospheric impacts of CFCs are not limited to its role as an active ozone reducer. This anthropogenic compound is also a greenhouse gas, with a much higher potential to enhance the greenhouse effect than CO2. Infrared bands trap heat from escaping earth's atmosphere. In the case of CFCs, the strongest of these bands are located at the spectral region – referred to as an atmospheric window due to the relative transparency of the...

  • Ozone air dispersion · consultants

    Ozone air dispersion · consultants

    Ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs. At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human activities (largely the combustion of fossil fuel), it is a pollutant, and a constituent of smog. Ozone (O3) is a key constituent of the troposphere. It is also an important constituent of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone layer. Photochemical and chemical reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the...

  • Roads · environmental performance · consultants

    Roads · environmental performance · consultants

    Roads are a chief source of environmental noise generation. In the early 1970s it was recognized that design of roads can be conducted to influence and minimize noise generation. Noise barriers are used to reduce Noise pollution, in particular where roads are located close to built-up areas. Regulations can restrict the use of Engine braking. Motor vehicle emissionss contribute air pollution. Concentrations of air pollutants and adverse respiratory...

  • Noise control · consultants

    Noise control · consultants

    Practical and efficient noise control is wholly reliant on an accurate diagnosis of what is causing the noise, which first involves finding the source of noise. Noise control is an active or passive means of reducing sound emissions, often incentivised by personal comfort, environmental considerations or legal compliance. Once the source of noise has been found, the focus is reducing the noise at source by engineering means. In the field of...

  • Architectural acoustics · consultants

    Architectural acoustics · consultants

    Architectural acoustics is the science of noise control within buildings. Noise suppression is critical in the design of multi-unit dwellings and business premises that generate significant noise, including music venues like bars. Architectural acoustics includes room acoustics, the design of recording and broadcast studios, home theaters, and listening rooms for media playback. The more mundane design of workplaces has implications for noise health...

  • Acoustic transmission · consultants

    Acoustic transmission · consultants

    Acoustic transmission in building design refers to a number of processes by which sound can be transferred from one part of a building to another: 1. Impact transmission 2. Flanking transmission 3. Airborne transmission Canarina Environmental Software develops programs for noise pollution modeling.

  • Noise regulation · consultants

    Noise regulation · consultants

    Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. Although the UK and Japan enacted national laws in 1960 and 1967 respectively, these laws were not at all comprehensive or fully enforceable as to address generally rising ambient noise, enforceable numerical source limits on aircraft and motor vehicles or comprehensive directives to local...

  • Attenuation coefficient · noise barriers · consultants

    Attenuation coefficient · noise barriers · consultants

    The attenuation coefficient is also called linear attenuation coefficient or absorption coefficient. Attenuation coefficient is a quantity that characterizes how easily a material or medium can be penetrated by a beam of sound. A large attenuation coefficient means that the beam is quickly 'attenuated' (weakened) as it passes through the medium, and a small attenuation coefficient means that the medium is relatively transparent to the beam. Canarina...