Ecil Met Tec

Ecil Met Tec

56 products found

Products by AMETEK Land

  • Fixed Spot Non-Contact Thermometers / Pyrometers

    Our extensive range of infrared thermometers provides online temperature measurements and control. Innovative, flexible solutions customisable for diverse processes and specialised applications.

  • AMETEK Land - Model SPOT AL EQS - Aluminium Extrusion, Quench and Strip

    AMETEK Land - Model SPOT AL EQS - Aluminium Extrusion, Quench and Strip

    An advanced non-contact infrared pyrometer providing a single sensor solution for aluminium extrusion press exit, quench and strip applications. A highly accurate and stable digital pyrometer, the SPOT AL EQS uses AMETEK Land’s cutting-edge SPOT technology, and unique, advanced data-processing algorithms, to measure aluminium temperature at an extruder press exit , quench or strip mill.

  • AMETEK Land - Model System 4 - Highly Accurate Infrared and Fibre Optic Thermometers

    AMETEK Land - Model System 4 - Highly Accurate Infrared and Fibre Optic Thermometers

    High-precision, single-spot pyrometers provide exceptional flexibility across a wide range of temperatures, operating wavelengths and applications. System 4 brings together AMETEK Land’s world-leading range of highly accurate infrared and fibre optic thermometers with our Landmark signal processors, delivering plant operators a complete temperature measurement system capability.

  • AMETEK Land - Model System 4 - Landmark Signal Processors

    AMETEK Land - Model System 4 - Landmark Signal Processors

    Landmark Signal Processors are designed to produce the process control variables required from any of the System 4 thermometers to improve quality and efficiency. With this total compatibility, you can choose a processor which provides the features and performance you need to meet the requirements of your application. All thermometers and processors are calibrated individually to guarantee interchangeability and easy ongoing maintenance.

  • AMETEK Land - Model UNO - Stand Alone Radiation Thermometer

    AMETEK Land - Model UNO - Stand Alone Radiation Thermometer

    A rugged, low-cost, standalone temperature sensor range optimised for OEMs, plant designers and process operators. A non-contact infrared thermometer range designed for standalone use, Simply power it up and UNO provides a 4-20mA output linear over its temperature range. UNO delivers precise, drift-free measurements for even the smallest target areas.

  • AMETEK Land - Model SOLOnet - Compact Digital Infrared Thermometers

    AMETEK Land - Model SOLOnet - Compact Digital Infrared Thermometers

    Flexible, web browser-enabled digital infrared thermometers customisable to a wide range of process control applications in manufacturing and industry. Compact digital infrared thermometers designed for web browser control, the cutting-edge SOLOnet series offer users versatility and value in a wide range of temperature monitoring applications.

  • AMETEK Land - Model SPRINT 8 - Digital Thermometer

    AMETEK Land - Model SPRINT 8 - Digital Thermometer

    A compact, rugged non-contact thermometer designed for lower temperature industrial processes (Available in the Americas only). Designed for the control and process monitoring of lower temperature applications, Sprint 8 integrates AMETEK Land’s reliable measurement into a tough package designed for harsh environments. Machined from durable stainless steel to operate in challenging environments, Sprint 8 outputs a stable measurement via a linear...

  • AMETEK Land - Model RT8A - Non-Contact Infrared Thermometer

    AMETEK Land - Model RT8A - Non-Contact Infrared Thermometer

    RT8A is a non-contact infrared thermometer for use in many low temperature applications. It helps asphalt paving or roadstone producers meet state, national and environmental quality compliance requirements and glass manufacturers meet quality compliance requirements in multiple standalone applications. Required to help manufacturers meet the increasing demands for tighter quality control and comply with...

  • AMETEK Land - Model ABT - Aluminium Billet Temperature Monitoring

    AMETEK Land - Model ABT - Aluminium Billet Temperature Monitoring

    Fast, accurate, non-contact thermometer designed specifically to measure the temperature profile of aluminium billets as they exit the heating furnace, regardless of the billet emissivity or surface condition. ABT is a dedicated Aluminium Billet Thermometer that gives a highly accurate custom measurement for aluminium billet surfaces, providing an accurate temperature profile of the billet as it passes by. A major advance in monitoring billet...

  • AMETEK Land - Model ADT - Aluminium Die Monitoring

    AMETEK Land - Model ADT - Aluminium Die Monitoring

    High accuracy, fast-response thermometer optimised for the measurement of the die prior to loading into the press in aluminium extrusion processes. The ADT , based on the full featured SPOT M160 Fibre optic pyrometer is an Aluminium Die Thermometer designed specifically for measuring pre-heated dies as they are moved from the die oven to installation in the aluminium extrusion press.

  • AMETEK Land - Model CDA - Incinerator for Measuring Gas Temperature

    AMETEK Land - Model CDA - Incinerator for Measuring Gas Temperature

    Advanced non-contact infrared thermometer designed for measuring the gas temperature within waste incinerators. The CDA thermometer is optimised to accurately measure the gas temperature in waste incinerators using AMETEK Land’s unique non-contact infrared technology. CDA ‘sees’ through a cold ambient air to measure the hot carbon dioxide beyond. By filtering out other gas types, CDA provides a true gas temperature for exceptional...

  • AMETEK Land - Model DTT - Drawing Tower Furnaces

    AMETEK Land - Model DTT - Drawing Tower Furnaces

    A short-wavelength infrared thermometer providing precise and stable temperature measurement for control of optical fibre drawing tower furnaces. A highly accurate temperature measurement of optical fibre drawing tower furnaces, DTT is a Drawing Tower Thermometer that enables production of high quality, low loss optical fibre to the required strength and attenuation. As AMETEK Land’s market-leading infrared technology avoids the practical issues...

  • AMETEK Land - Model FG - Glass Forehearth

    AMETEK Land - Model FG - Glass Forehearth

    A simple fibre-optic, two-wire, loop powered thermometer with 4 to 20mA output. Specifically designed to improve process control in the glass industry. Offering accurate, high resolution and reliable temperature measurements up to 1650°C (3000°F), the FG thermometer enables precise control of process temperatures in the glass industry. A simple, cost-effective alternative to tri level thermocouples for some zones measuring bulk glass...

  • AMETEK Land - Model FLT5A - Float Line Thermometer

    AMETEK Land - Model FLT5A - Float Line Thermometer

    Accurate and flexible infrared thermometer measurements for measuring glass surface temperature in the tin bath and annealing lehr on float lines.The FLT5A is a standalone thermometer offering precision measurement of the surface temperature of glass float lines, ensuring consistently high product quality throughout the process. Offering excellent precision and long-term stability, the FLT5A’s extensive measurement range removes the need to use...

  • AMETEK Land - Model FTS - Furnace Thermometer System

    AMETEK Land - Model FTS - Furnace Thermometer System

    A two-sensor temperature monitoring system designed to continuously measure true load temperatures in reheat furnace applications especially in the challenging heating sections. Using AMETEK Land’s leading-edge infrared sensing to measure both furnace load and background temperature, the Furnace Thermometer System (FTS) links to the advanced Landmark Graphic signal processor for a true temperature of the reheat furnace load unaffected by...

  • AMETEK Land - Model GST - Galvanneal Strip Thermometer

    AMETEK Land - Model GST - Galvanneal Strip Thermometer

    AMETEK Land formally announce that from the 26th November 2018 the System 4 Galvanneal Strip Thermometer (GST) will be discontinued from new product sales. Whilst the product has been stopped for new product sales the system is fully supported by our qualified field and factory service teams and our internal technical support engineers. A selected range of GST spares will remain available from AMETEK Land and will continue to be supplied as standard...

  • AMETEK Land - Model SP - Spray Chamber

    AMETEK Land - Model SP - Spray Chamber

    Fibre optic infrared thermometer system, custom-designed for temperature measurements in the hostile environment of the continuous caster spray chamber. A drift-free thermometer designed to overcome the adverse environment of a continuous caster spray chamber, SCP utilises AMETEK Land’s accurate short wavelength processing to ensure a reliable measurement – even in the hottest and harshest conditions. Requiring no...

  • AMETEK Land - Model VDT - Vapour Deposition Thermometer

    AMETEK Land - Model VDT - Vapour Deposition Thermometer

    Non-contact infrared thermometer custom-designed for accurate preform temperature measurements in optical fibre manufacture. Optimised for precise preform temperature control in vapour deposition processes, AMETEK Land’s Vapour Deposition Thermometer delivers a critical measurement for production of low-loss, high-bandwidth optical fibre. VDT enables exact sighting onto the rotating preform for an accurate surface temperature...

  • AMETEK Land - Model SPOT Actuator - Aluminium Pyrometer

    AMETEK Land - Model SPOT Actuator - Aluminium Pyrometer

    The SPOT Actuator provides remotely controlled target alignment of a SPOT pyrometer for industrial processing applications, specifically for aluminium applications using the SPOT AL EQS (Aluminium Extrusion, Quench and Strip) pyrometer. The SPOT Actuator is a motorised unit which is designed for use at the billet reheat furnace exit, die entrance and exit and quench exit on aluminium extrusion presses and is capable of operating in automatic or...

  • Fixed Thermal Imagers & Line Scanners

    Providing high-resolution thermal information, our imagers and linescanners set the industry standard for performance. Backed by advanced software support, they supply the information you need to keep your process running safely and efficiently.

  • AMETEK Land - Model NIR-B - Short-Wavelength Radiometric Infrared Borescope

    AMETEK Land - Model NIR-B - Short-Wavelength Radiometric Infrared Borescope

    A short-wavelength radiometric infrared borescope imaging camera, designed to measure temperature profiles in furnace interiors. Specifically designed for measuring temperature profiles inside furnaces, NIR Borescope uses AMETEK Land’s cutting-edge, near-infrared imaging to create continuous, high-definition thermal images. By producing a detailed, live radiometric image with accurate temperature information, NIR-B allows operators to measure...

  • AMETEK Land - Model LSP-HD - Infrared Linescanner for Thermal Process Imaging

    AMETEK Land - Model LSP-HD - Infrared Linescanner for Thermal Process Imaging

    Compact and sophisticated high accuracy infrared linescanner, designed to produce advanced thermal images of moving processes. A compact infrared linescanner easily integrated using a standard Ethernet connection, the LSP-HD series offers highly accurate temperature measurements in a range of application-specific models. Offering industry-leading scanning performance of 1000 data points even at scan speeds as high as 150 scans per second, LSP-HD sets...

  • AMETEK Land - Model NIR Imager - Fixed Thermal Imaging Camera

    AMETEK Land - Model NIR Imager - Fixed Thermal Imaging Camera

    Near Infrared Fixed Thermal Imaging and Temperature Measurement Camera; A fixed thermal imager for high temperature measurement and thermal imaging. Direct Ethernet cable connection to PC running LIPS NIR for display, recording, alarms, analysis and manipulation of thermal images.

  • AMETEK Land - Model FTI-Eb - Furnace Monitoring System

    AMETEK Land - Model FTI-Eb - Furnace Monitoring System

    A precise, fixed thermal imager with borescope and wide field-of-views for maximum monitoring coverage requiring only a small diameter access hole through the furnace wall. Various lens and borescope lengths allow for installation and application flexibility. FTI-EB is a high-accuracy, fixed thermal imaging camera, optimised for use in refractory-lined furnaces or boilers, and supported by an extensive range of dedicated accessories for resilient...

  • AMETEK Land - Model FTI-E Imager - Fixed Thermal Imaging System

    AMETEK Land - Model FTI-E Imager - Fixed Thermal Imaging System

    A high-resolution, accurate, fast, radiometric thermal imager designed to capture detailed temperature information in harsh industrial environments. Part of AMETEK Land’s advanced intelligent imaging solution, The FTI-E family of imagers provide high-resolution, radiometric thermal images for a wide range of industrial applications in hostile conditions. Easy to install and use, its accurate temperature measurements provide the complete thermal...

  • AMETEK Land - Model HotSpotIR - Conveyor Belts

    AMETEK Land - Model HotSpotIR - Conveyor Belts

    An extremely compact, fast-response infrared scanning system designed to detect emerging hot spots on conveyor belt materials. Designed for industrial environments, the fixed-focus HotSpotIR high-speed scanning system detects small hot inclusions on a moving conveyor before they can cause a fire. Reliable alarm processing is achieved without software or computer requirements.

  • AMETEK Land - Model SDS-E - Slag Detection System

    AMETEK Land - Model SDS-E - Slag Detection System

    The Slag Detection System (SDS) is the proven solution for accurate and timely detection of slag carryover in the steelmaking process, allowing plants to improve product quality, reduce slag carryover and improve operator safety. With over 60 years of application expertise in the steel industry AMETEK Land’s Slag Detection System (SDS) accurately and rapidly detects the onset of slag carry-over. This fast response significantly reduces slag...

  • AMETEK Land - Model NIR-B 3XR - HPI - Reformer & Cracker Tube Furnace Thermal Imaging System

    AMETEK Land - Model NIR-B 3XR - HPI - Reformer & Cracker Tube Furnace Thermal Imaging System

    An infrared thermal imaging solution offering continuous, short-wavelength, 24/7 temperature monitoring for steam reformer and Ethylene cracker tube furnaces. NIR Borescope (NIR-B) 3XR is a radiometric infrared imaging camera optimised for continuous temperature measurements in steam reformer and cracker tube furnaces. Using the proven technology of AMETEK Land’s advanced NIR thermal imager, NIR-B 3XR offers highly accurate measurements of high...

  • AMETEK Land - Model NIR-B Glass - Melt Tank - Borescope Thermal Imaging Camera

    AMETEK Land - Model NIR-B Glass - Melt Tank - Borescope Thermal Imaging Camera

    A borescope thermal imaging camera, specifically developed to return precise temperature measurements in glass furnace applications. An application-specific version of AMETEK Land’s cutting-edge NIR-B thermal imaging camera, Near Infrared Borescope (NIR-B) Glass creates detailed, live radiometric images that accurately measure temperatures inside of a glass melt furnace.

  • AMETEK Land - Model ASPS - Aluminium Strip Coiling

    AMETEK Land - Model ASPS - Aluminium Strip Coiling

    An application-specific version of the proven ARC thermal imaging system, designed for temperature monitoring of aluminium strip coiling. Developed specifically for accurate, edge-to edge temperature measurement of aluminium strip at the coiler. ASPS uses a Patented technique of advanced radiometric thermal imaging to produce highly accurate temperature measurements at the coiler location.

  • AMETEK Land - Model LSP HD-50/LSP HD-52 - Glass Tempering Furnace System

    AMETEK Land - Model LSP HD-50/LSP HD-52 - Glass Tempering Furnace System

    An integrated solution for high-accuracy temperature measurements in glass toughening plants - independent of surface coatings applied to the glass. Glass Tempering Furnace System meets the challenge of accurately measuring glass temperatures for plants running multiple glass types – even using a variety of coatings, including low-emissivity surfaces. Easy to install and use, AMETEK Land’s high-precision technology...

  • Calibration Sources

  • AMETEK Landcal - Model P1600B2 - High Temperature Bench-Mounted

    AMETEK Landcal - Model P1600B2 - High Temperature Bench-Mounted

    Bench-mounted, primary standard, var. temp. source. LANDCAL P1600B2 is a new improved bench mounted, primary standard, variable temperature source designed for testing and precise calibration of most high temperature industrial radiation thermometers, thermographic equipment and thermocouples.

  • AMETEK Landcal - Model P550P - Low Temperature Portable

    AMETEK Landcal - Model P550P - Low Temperature Portable

    Providing the same high precision as our advanced temperature monitoring products, a comprehensive range of six calibration sources lets you calibrate radiation thermometers across a temperature range of -10 °C to 1600 °C (15 °F to 2900 °F). As Landcal blackbody sources are perfect absorbers and emitters, calibrations are made with an extremely high level of stability; all calibrations are traceable to National Standards, delivering...

  • AMETEK Landcal - Model P80P - Low Temperature Portable Calibration Source

    AMETEK Landcal - Model P80P - Low Temperature Portable Calibration Source

    Providing the same high precision as our advanced temperature monitoring products, a comprehensive range of six calibration sources lets you calibrate radiation thermometers across a temperature range of -10 °C to 1600 °C (15 °F to 2900 °F). As Landcal blackbody sources are perfect absorbers and emitters, calibrations are made with an extremely high level of stability; all calibrations are traceable to National Standards, delivering...

  • AMETEK Landcal - Model R1200P - High Temperature Portable

    AMETEK Landcal - Model R1200P - High Temperature Portable

    Providing the same high precision as our advanced temperature monitoring products, a comprehensive range of six calibration sources lets you calibrate radiation thermometers across a temperature range of -10 °C to 1600 °C (15 °F to 2900 °F). As Landcal blackbody sources are perfect absorbers and emitters, calibrations are made with an extremely high level of stability; all calibrations are traceable to National Standards, delivering...

  • AMETEK Landcal - Model R1500T - High Temperature Transport

    AMETEK Landcal - Model R1500T - High Temperature Transport

    Providing the same high precision as our advanced temperature monitoring products, a comprehensive range of six calibration sources lets you calibrate radiation thermometers across a temperature range of -10 °C to 1600 °C (15 °F to 2900 °F). As Landcal blackbody sources are perfect absorbers and emitters, calibrations are made with an extremely high level of stability; all calibrations are traceable to National Standards, delivering...

  • Portable Non-Contact Thermometers

    Our high-quality Cyclops L handheld thermometers provide spot temperature measurements, with unmatched accuracy and reliability. Trigger-operated for easy use, with precise target viewing and on-board data storage.

  • Combustion Efficiency Monitors

    Close monitoring of oxygen, carbon monoxide and sulphuric acid dewpoint can help improve combustion efficiency, lower energy use, reduce emissions and prevent plant corrosion. We offer precision measurements for these applications.

  • AMETEK Land - Model 9100 - Cross-Stack, Infrared Carbon Monoxide (CO) Monitor

    AMETEK Land - Model 9100 - Cross-Stack, Infrared Carbon Monoxide (CO) Monitor

    A highly accurate, cross-stack, infrared carbon monoxide (CO) monitor suitable for use in a wide range of industrial combustion efficiency applications. Developed based on AMETEK Land’s decades of experience in carbon monoxide monitoring solutions, the Model 9100 provides the direct, continuous, cross-stack CO measurement and fast-response coverage essential to efficient combustion control in boilers.

  • AMETEK Land Genesis - Model WDG 1200 & 1210 - Flue Gas Oxygen Analyzers

    AMETEK Land Genesis - Model WDG 1200 & 1210 - Flue Gas Oxygen Analyzers

    A highly flexible range of high-precision flue gas oxygen analysers developed specifically for combustion analysis and control applications. Using AMETEK’s industry-proven zirconium oxide sensor technology, the WDG-1200/1210 range provides the world’s first fully-integrated, standalone flue gas oxygen analysers. The user interface is mounted onto the probe, lowering installation costs.

  • AMETEK Land - Model Lancom 200 - Portable Acid Dewpoint Temperature Monitoring

    AMETEK Land - Model Lancom 200 - Portable Acid Dewpoint Temperature Monitoring

    A portable monitoring device using conductive cell technology for accurate, periodic measurements of the Acid Dewpoint Temperature (ADT) in combustion processes. Designed specifically to provide the unique but vital measurement of sulphuric acid dewpoint temperature, the portable Lancom 200 supports boiler efficiency checks, corrosion protection and the management of high-cost fuel additives.

  • Portable Gas Analysers

    The Lancom 4 range lets you take AMETEK Land’s cutting-edge, easy-to-use gas analysis on the move. With up to nine gas measurements on a single analyser, there are solutions for combustion monitoring and environmental compliance.

  • AMETEK Land - Model Lancom 4 - Compact Portable Multi-Gas Analyser System

    AMETEK Land - Model Lancom 4 - Compact Portable Multi-Gas Analyser System

    Compact portable multigas analyser, capable of measuring up to eight flue gases in a range of combustion and emissions processes. Lancom 4 delivers the complete solution for portable flue gas analysis, integrated into a compact battery-powered unit able to measure up to eight gases simultaneously with nine separate sensors. Simple to set-up and easy to operate, Lancom 4 enables highly accurate spot and semi-continuous gas testing adaptable to a wide...

  • Opacity and Dust Monitors

    The most advanced range of opacity, dust and particulates monitors available, use patented technology to deliver highly accurate results. With no moving parts, they combine high reliability with low maintenance.

  • AMETEK Land - Model 4500 MkIII - Compliance Opacity and Dust Monitor

    AMETEK Land - Model 4500 MkIII - Compliance Opacity and Dust Monitor

    A high-specification opacity and dust monitor meeting global compliance standards for monitoring combustion processes. 4500 MkIII is the most accurate and reliable continuous opacity monitor available, combining AMETEK Land’s ground-breaking innovation and simple design for precise, problem-free operation. Unmatched, class-leading accuracy ensures compliance limits for dust emissions and stack opacity are met with confidence. This avoids the...

  • AMETEK Land - Model 4650-PM - Compliance Particulate Matter Monitor

    AMETEK Land - Model 4650-PM - Compliance Particulate Matter Monitor

    High-sensitivity, forward-scatter laser measurement for particulate matter, for use in combustion processes where condensed water is not present (for sale in the USA and China only). 4650-PM provides the stable, accurate low-range measurement of particulate matter in stacks and ducts where water droplets are not present in the flue gas. NOTE: The 4650-PM is currently available only in the USA and China.

  • AMETEK Land - Model 4200+ - Non-Compliance Opacity and Dust Monitor

    AMETEK Land - Model 4200+ - Non-Compliance Opacity and Dust Monitor

    Dust and opacity monitor, designed for measuring dust emission concentrations in combustion applications where automatic calibration checks are not required. The 4200+ is the most accurate and reliable monitor available for dust and opacity measurements in combustion applications not requiring automatic calibration checks and regulatory compliance. Optimised for multi-process plants using common exhaust stack sizes, 4200+ delivers you immediate...

  • AMETEK Land - Model 4200 - Non-Compliance Dust Emissions Monitor

    AMETEK Land - Model 4200 - Non-Compliance Dust Emissions Monitor

    Simple, lightweight dust and opacity monitor designed to measure emission levels in combustion processes where regulatory compliance is not required (for sale in Asia only). The 4200 dust and opacity monitor is AMETEK Land’s compact, cost-effective solution for the continuous monitoring of dust, smoke and particulates in a wide range of industrial applications. NOTE: The 4200 is currently available only in Asia.

  • Carbon Monoxide Detectors

    Providing early warning of combustion in process and storage areas, our highly sensitive CO detectors monitor the entire process. This gives the best chance of early detection, allowing rapid action to prevent fire.

  • AMETEK Land Millwatch - Advanced Carbon Monoxide Detector

    AMETEK Land Millwatch - Advanced Carbon Monoxide Detector

    An advanced carbon monoxide detector designed to provide early warning of spontaneous combustion in pulverisers for coal and biomass. Specifically designed for early detection of potential fire risk in pulverizing mills in coal or biomass processes, Millwatch monitors and quickly responds to sudden carbon monoxide (CO) build-up, allowing preventative action to be taken before a hazardous condition develops.

  • Industry Application Specific

    We design systems specifically to solve critical temperature measurement problems in particular industrial  applications. These specialised solutions provide optimised performance in challenging processes.

  • AMETEK Land - Unique Reference Pyromete - Gold Cup

    AMETEK Land - Unique Reference Pyromete - Gold Cup

    AMETEK Land’s unique reference pyrometer designed specifically for temperature measurements on the surface of reformer tubes. As the only instrument that can provide a repeatable, reliable temperature for reformer tubes, Gold Cup eliminates inherent errors that affect other infrared devices. This makes it ideal for checking and correcting other measurement devices.

  • AMETEK Land - Model JRG/A - Plate and Float Glass

    AMETEK Land - Model JRG/A - Plate and Float Glass

    Application specific design, compact  fast-response thermometer designed for temperature measurements on plate and float glass applications. A unique miniature radiation thermometer measuring just 28mm x 4mm, JRG/A is specifically designed to monitor temperature consistency in plate and float glass applications.

  • AMETEK Land - Model SD - Blast Furnace Stove Dome

    AMETEK Land - Model SD - Blast Furnace Stove Dome

    A short wavelength infrared thermometer system specifically designed for high-precision, and rapid non-contact temperature measurements of the refractories inside blast furnace stoves. The application-specific Stove Dome (SD) system uses AMETEK Land’s advanced infrared radiation thermometer technology to monitor refractory temperatures around the stove dome or hot blast main.

  • AMETEK Land - Model Understrip - Fibre-Optic Temperature Measurement System

    AMETEK Land - Model Understrip - Fibre-Optic Temperature Measurement System

    A fibre-optic temperature measurement system designed to provide continuous, accurate monitoring of the scale-free metal surface under the steel mill roller table. AMETEK Land’s application-specific solution for temperature measurements in the hot rolling of flat steel products, the Understrip is a rugged, accurate system designed to take measurements from the underside of the steel. This avoids any effects from surface water or minor scale that...