The process of electricity generation from fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas is water-intensive. Between 40-50% of all water abstracted and used in developed countries is used in the generation of electricity. Thus, a reliable, abundant and predictable source of raw water supply to a power plant is a critical factor in site selection. Water supplies are required to provide various process waters for the following essential main purposes such as make-up water, cooling water for steam turbine condensers, and auxiliary plant cooling water.
The primary application of modern water treatment technology is to maintain the integrity and performance of the power plant. Critical plant applications have water purity or conditioning requirements that must be adhered to for safe, reliable and efficient power generation.
Experience has shown that integration of water technology treatments with power plant design can be very important in reducing operational problems and component failures
At power plant worldwide there are increasing limitations on water availability and environmental restrictions on discharges. This is expected to promote measures for water conservation and to have an increasing influence on water treatment decisions. At power plant, the recycling of internal wastewater streams can extend from the recovery of individual high-quality waste streams, which can be reused either directly or after only limited treatment, through to the development of fully integrated water/wastewater treatment systems for zero liquid discharge. However, the application of reuse schemes requires site-specific assessment, as not all waters may be viable options for recovery.
By Industrie De Nora S.p.A. | De Nora Water Technologies based in Milan, ITALY.
Cobalt is a brittle, hard transition metal with magnetic properties similar to iron. It is mainly used as an alloy with iron, nickel or other metals to produce corrosion and wear resistant products for high temperature applications (such as jet engines, gas turbines, etc.). Cobalt is normally produced as a by-product of nickel or copper mining. The purity requirements for Cobalt do not allow nickel to exceed a concentration 0.1%. Earlier, the nickel was removed by lime precipitations, but as the market specifications became more stringent, ion exchange technologies have been applied.
By PuriTech Ltd based in Herentals, BELGIUM.
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