3-D frequency-domain seismic wave modelling in heterogeneous, anisotropic media using a Gaussian quadrature grid approach
We present an extension of the 3-D spectral element method (SEM), called the Gaussian quadrature grid (GQG) approach, to simulate in the frequency-domain seismic waves in 3-D heterogeneous anisotropic media involving a complex free-surface topography and/or sub-surface geometry. It differs from the conventional SEM in two ways. The first is the replacement of the hexahedral element mesh with 3-D Gaussian quadrature abscissae to directly sample the physical properties or model parameters. This gives a point-gridded model which more exactly and easily matches the free-surface topography and/or any sub-surface interfaces. It does not require that the topography be highly smooth, a condition required in the curved finite difference method and the spectral method...
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