Boilers and cooling towers share two major water related problems: deposits and corrosion. As steam is generated by a boiler or water evaporating from a cooling tower, dissolved minerals are left behind, increasing the concentration of these minerals. Additional minerals are introduced via the water added to makeup the water lost to steam/evaporation. Eventually, the minerals reach a level (or cycle) of concentration that will cause either loss of efficiency due to scale or damage from corrosion. This level can be determined by the Ryznar or Langlier indices and correlated to a conductivity or TDS range. Most people recognize problems associated with corrosion. Effects from scale deposits, however, are equally important. For example, as little as 1/8` of scale can reduce the efficiency of a boiler by 18% or a cooling tower heat exchanger by 40%!
By Myron L Company based in Carlsbad, CALIFORNIA (USA).
The chloride process of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment manufacture first converts titania-containing ores to TiCl4 via a carbochlorination reaction at a high temperature in a chlorinator in the presence of chlorine gas and petroleum coke added as a reductant.
By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is well suited for upstream gas production during oil and gas operations, as well as other oil and gas water applications. Chlorine dioxide is highly effective and more sustainable than other oxidizing or non-oxidizing biocide options.
By DuPont Chlorine Dioxide based in North Kingstown,, RHODE ISLAND (USA).
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