Combustion Monitoring Articles

  • Energy and exergy analyses of a spark-ignition engine

    In this paper, the performance of an internal combustion engine is evaluated at the steady-state condition by application of energy and exergy analysis using the experimental test results. The energy and exergy balances are calculated at different engine speeds. The results show that the heat rejection of energy and exergy flow increases with increasing engine speed. The exergy efficiencies are ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Detecting Hydrogen Gas and Fires: Seeing the Unseen

    Hydrogen usage is growing. The general public sees and reads about hydrogen as an alternative fuel for cars. However, the big use for hydrogen is found in hydrocarbon processing and other important manufacturing processes. Hydrogen is the first element on the periodic table and is an essential element in the manufacturing of many of our everyday products. We must have respect for its explosive ...

  • Safety Systems Depend on Reliable Field Sensors (Emphasis on Fire and Gas Detectors)

    Abstract Because not all hazards are the same, identifying and quantifying the hazard is the starting point in choosing sensing technology. Not all detectors are the same, and they should be selected according to their ability to detect the hazard. This paper gives a broad summary of technologies that provide users reliable responses to hazardous conditions, that minimise false ...

  • Engine Testing

    Engine testing involves measurement of rotating speed and torque of the engine by applying load controlled by a dynamometer connected to its output shaft. HORIBA has developed various types of dynamometer for the purpose of engine testing. They are mainly classified into two types; one is absorbing only dynamometer such as hydraulic dynamometers and eddy-current dynamometers, the other is ...


    By HORIBA Europe GmbH

  • Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in some lichens of Garhwal Himalayas, India

    Lichens collected from five different sites (11 localities) from Garhwal Himalayas, Uttaranchal, India, were analysed for individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). There was high spatial variability in the total PAH (ΣPAH) concentrations that ranged from 0.683 ppm to 33.72 ppm with an average concentration of 15.04 ± 12.853 (SD). To elucidate sources, six molecular indices ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Preparing for EPA’s mandatory reporting of greenhouse gases rule

    Recent action by the US EPA to finalize the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Rule means that environmental managers must now seriously examine whether they are fully prepared to address the imminent requirements. This article provides some assistance by summarizing key points regarding the final versus proposed rule, providing clarification on key questions that have arisen since the ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • Conception of an environmental technology data bank

    For documentation, analysis and application of the state of the art and its development in environmental technologies, an information system should be conceived by using modern information and communication techniques. Within this project the pilot phase is being carried out, in which in co-operation with the established working party (industry, host and authorities) a test data bank is being ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Performance and exhaust emissions of a two-stroke spark-ignition engine with a direct-injection system

    A direct fuel-injection system has been adapted to a small two-stroke spark-ignition engine to prevent the charge from flowing through the cylinder during the scavenging process. The injection system consists of a jerk-type pump and a single-hole nozzle which supplies gasoline to the cylinder. Engine tests were carried out for comparison with the carburettor version of the same engine. The ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion in selected countries

    This article introduces an approach applicable to analysing different factors influencing elements relevant in sustainable development like environmental impacts. The approach is built on the idea of IPAT identity and it applies a chained two-factor decomposition technique for calculating numerical estimates for a larger set of contributing factors than traditionally done in applying ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Performance evaluation of a hydrogen-ethanol fuelled engine

    The work presented in the paper is an attempt to evaluate the performance characteristics of a hydrogen?ethanol dual fuel combination with different percentage substitutions of hydrogen (i.e. 0-80% with an increment of 20% by volume) at three different compression ratios of 7:1, 9:1 and 11:1 with varying equivalence ratios. In the present study, experimental investigations have been carried out ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a DI CI engine using biodiesel with varied fatty acid composition

    Five Biodiesel produced from different vegetable oils were tested on a diesel engine to study the effect of biodiesel fatty acid composition specifically unsaturated composition on the engine combustion. The results from fuel analysis show that biodiesel (93% unsaturated fatty acid ester composition) with 55% linolenic ester has a higher density of 0.89 kg/m³, lower viscosity of 3.8 cSt, heating ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Exergy analysis of a turbofan aircraft engine

    An exergy analysis is reported for a General Electric turbofan engine (the CF6-80) using sea-level data. The effects on exergy efficiencies and exergy destructions are investigated of modifying the isentropic efficiencies of turbomachinery components. The most irreversible units in the system are found to be the fan and the core engine exhaust, with exergy loss rates of 47.3 MW and 35.9 MW, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Thermodynamic analysis of Spark Ignition engines using the Entropy Generation Minimisation method

    The recent improvement on Spark Ignition Engines has been the result of improved engine thermodynamic cycles, made possible by advances in technologies such as Variable Valve Timing (VVT) and Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). To evaluate the potential of these techniques a thermodynamic analysis is made. Numerical models were implemented in Matlab Simulink using the laws of thermodynamics and ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Low emissions from large plants too

    Type     HOFGAS®- LPM 3000 Performance     3’000 Nm³/h, 15’000 kW Location     Scotland (GB) SituationEvery year, 150’000 tonnes of waste from Edinburgh, Lothian and the Borders Region are brought to the Dunbar landfill site. The waste is transported by rail to the site. In 2002, the UK Environmental Agency ...


    By Hofstetter BV

  • High temperature combustion of landfill gas

    Type     Compact plant HOFGAS® - Efficiency 250 Commissioning     December 2001 Site     Storkohmo landfill, Kokkola (FIN) Situation Storkohmo landfill is located 400km north of Helsinki on Finland's west coast near the city of Kokkola. Based on local legislation requirements ( reduction of green house gas emissions ) the ...


    By Hofstetter BV

  • The Bottom Line Series: Cap-and-trade

    Cap-and-trade programs are the foundation of many climate policy proposals and have been a focus of debate in state, regional, and national legislatures. This fact sheet provides answers to some of the basic questions about cap-and-trade programs and reviews how such a system might work in the United States. What is a cap-and-trade program? A cap-and-trade program sets a maximum limit, or a ...

  • Detailed chemical modelling of a flameless combustion turbine for pollution prevention

    Flameless combustion has been acknowledged as one of the most interesting combustion technologies to meet both the targets of high process efficiency and low pollutant emissions. The present investigation is concerned with the application of the flameless combustion mode to an adiabatic combustor, typically used in gas turbine engines. Detailed chemical kinetics calculations, by means of a ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Combustion and Thermal Behavior of Polyurethane Acrylate Modified with a Phosphorus Monomer

    A series of UV curable flame retardant resins were obtained by blending bis(2-acryloxyethyl) 2.6.7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo[2.2.2.]octane-4-methylol-1-oxide phosphate (MDMPE) in certain ratios with a commercial polyurethane acrylate (PUA). It has been found that the cured film shows good flame retardancy when the MDMPE is at 30% additive level. The cone calorimeter results show that the heat ...


    By SAGE Publications

  • Experimental studies on hydrophobic flocculation of coal fines in aqueous solutions and flotation of flocculated coal

    Hydrophobic flocculation of fine bituminous coal particles in aqueous solutions under mechanical conditioning and without any surfactants has been experimentally studied through the measurements of aggregative efficiency, zeta potential and contact angle in this work. The results have shown that the hydrophobic coal fines strongly aggregated in a wide pH range (3.5?9.5), even though the particle ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Exergy analysis of SI engines

    In this study, exergy (availability) analysis of a Spark Ignition (SI) engine has been performed theoretically during compression, combustion and expansion processes of the engine cycle. For this purpose, a thermodynamic-based engine cycle model is developed without considering the geometric features of fluid motion. Through the analysis, the effects of changing some design and operating ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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