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FTIR Analyses Applications

  • Integrated real-time gas analysis solution for chemical weapon agents

    The nation has stockpiled thousands of cylinders and canisters of toxic and deadly chemical weapon agents, including mustard gas (HD), sarin (GB), tabun (GA), and V-agents. Most of these CWAs are stored at DOD facilities around the country and many have been in storage for years and years. As a consequence, DOD requirements specify that the stockpiles have to be monitored regularly for leakages to prevent release to the environment and exposure to personnel.

    By CIC Photonics, Inc. based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

  • Integrated real-time gas analysis solution for R & D industry

    Universities and research institutes, including federal agencies and laboratories, regularly call upon CIC Photonics to custom design and fabricate gas cells and FTIR gas analyzers for innovative research studies. Their research spans a range from the synthesis of new chemicals to spectroscopy of the universe. Hence, their requirements often demand the complete utilization of the company’s staffing skills in physical chemistry, chemical engineering, optics, mechanical engineering, and electronic engineering, as well as computer programming.

    By CIC Photonics, Inc. based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

  • Integrated real-time gas analysis solution for specialty gases industry

    CIC Photonics’ extensive experience with gas analysis has also included what the industry refers to as Specialty Gases, as distinguished from Semi Gases, Electronic Specialty Gases, and Industrial Gases. Specialty Gases are high purity gases used across many applications by researchers, by government agencies, and by commercial businesses. Included among these users and applications are: hospitals for medical gases; environmental labs and testing companies for blends of protocol gas mixtures; calibration gases; spectroscopy standards; gas composition measurements and confirmations; and others.

    By CIC Photonics, Inc. based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

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    Fluoride emissions monitoring in aluminum smelters

    Production of aluminum from its ores at aluminum smelters results in carbon dioxide CO2, carbon monoxide CO, sulfur dioxide SO2, and hydrogen fluoride HF gas emissions during the electrolytic process phase to the atmosphere. The gas emissions need to be monitored. Typically the smelters have emission limit values (ELVs) for sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride emissions. These emissions should be measured accurately and with good precision, to ensure the smelter does not exceed its emission limit values. In addition several fluoride compounds may be produced in the electrolytic bath in the event of an oxygen shortage. These compounds include carbon tetrafluoride CF4, hexafluoroethane C2F6, sulfur hexafluoride SF6, and silicon tetrafluoride SiF4. These additional emission components are problematic, as they have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) values. The GWP is a relative measure designed to demonstrate how much heat a greenhouse gas (GHG) traps in the atmosphere. Emission of one kilogram of carbon tetrafluoride into the atmosphere today has the potential of heating the atmosphere as much as 7,000 kilograms of carbon dioxide over the next 100 years.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Measurement solution for formaldehyde FTIR measurement

    Reciprocating internal combustion engines burning natural gas are a source of formaldehyde emissions. There are strict tolerances imposed on operators of engines to ensure that formaldehyde is removed effectively and that formaldehyde emissions are below published limits. The only instrumental method for formaldehyde monitoring is FTIR, following procedures such as US EPA Method 320 and Environment Agency TGN M22. Protea’s FTIR gas analysers have been specifically designed to follow these methods and our FTIR analyser have been proven in formaldehyde emission measurements over many years.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for Perflurocarbon (PFC) emissions from aluminium industry

    The aluminium industry is the major source of perflurocarbon (PFC) emissions to the atmosphere, which are a major contributor to global warming. PFCs have greenhouse gas effects up to 10000 times that of CO2. Emissions have been reduced over the last 20 years, but further reductions are harder to achieve as all the mechanisms for PFC production are not known. In order to better understand the production of PFC on an industrial level, laboratory studies have been carried out using a small scale cell.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for soil chamber gas flux

    Closed chamber gas flux measurements can be made with Protea FTIR analysers to allow researchers in the field of atmospheric gas analysis from agricultural and livestock to measure evolved gases such as N2O, CO2, CO, NH3, and CH4. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and Methane (CH4) emissions from soil, plant and livestock are especially important gases to measure, given their high potential as greenhouse gases (GHGs). NH3, whilst not a greenhouse gas on the scale of N2O, CH4 and CO2, is a major emission from agricultural, such as after the spreading of liquid manure, and steps are required to measure and reduce the NH3 emissions and the effects they have on the ecosystem.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for fire testing for the railway industry

    A lot of research is carried out in laboratory and on real fires as to the gaseous substances produced in fire effluent. Measurement principles using analytical instrumentation are becoming more widely used in fire testing, due to the quick, real-time nature of the measurements. ISO 19702 is an international standard developed for the use of FTIR analysers in the analysis of gas from fire effluents. Further to this, local test standards such as DIN 5510, applicable to the railway industry, can provide further requirements for gases to be measured.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for acrylates speciation

    A customer had a requirement for continuous Ethyl Acrylate monitoring. The process operations emit multiple Acrylate species, all at low concentrations, but only Ethyl Acrylate being reportable to the EA under the terms of the IPC permit. A 204M FTIR analyser was deployed and a chemometric model was built specifically to target Acrylates, with the purpose of separating and accurately quantify the target Ethyl Acrylate species.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for WID Emissions Monitoring

    Protea is the most experienced company in the UK in using FTIR gas analyser to measure emissions. Through running a UKAS-accredited test house and being a manufacturer of gas analysers, we have been involved in FTIR as a supplier and end-user for 10 years.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    AutoChem - Organic Synthesis

    Today, pharmaceutical and fine chemical companies face major challenges posed by globalization, environmental regulation, and shortened product life cycle that affect all aspects of their business. The research and development of an optimized chemical synthesis route must be carried out in less time and with less chemical waste to ensure a robust and economic process that can be efficiently scaled to manufacturing while meeting constraints related to product yield and purity, process and worker safety, and environmental concerns.

    By Mettler - Toledo Int. Inc based in Greifensee, SWITZERLAND.

  • Integrated real-time gas analysis solution for electronic specialty gases industry

    The company’s entry into the electronic specialty gas market originated in 1994-95 as a consequence of the semiconductor industry’s demand for increasingly higher purity gases from the major gas producers. The issue was then and remains today to be primarily moisture impurity levels in the cleaning, etching, and treatment gases used in wafer production. In that earlier period when common wafer sizes were 6” and 12”, the semi industry required moisture concentrations to be 250 to 500 ppb or better; with each year after that the industry tightened its requirements such that today the moisture specifications are 1 to 5 ppb or better.

    By CIC Photonics, Inc. based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

  • Integrated real-time gas analysis solution for combustion efficiency sector

    CIC Photonics has made its mark with several R&D institutes where research is underway to determine the optimum thermodynamic performance of new turbine engine designs combined with new diesel fuel formulations. This sophisticated IRGAS technology has included not only a basic FTIR gas analyzer but also analyzers for H2, O2, THC, and a powder meter all integrated into a comprehensive IRGAS Solution.

    By CIC Photonics, Inc. based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

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    Measurement solution for complex, real-time VOC measurement with atmosFIR FTIR gas analyser platform

    Introduction

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a group of organic compounds which have a low vapour pressure at room temperature, meaning that they will readily evaporate into the surrounding air. The term VOC refers to many different classes of organic compounds such as alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatics and many more.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    AutoChem - Process Development and Scale-Up

    Process Development in the chemical industry requires a profound and comprehensive knowledge of the processes involved and is governed by a triangular relationship between `Economy - Safety - Environment`.

    By Mettler - Toledo Int. Inc based in Greifensee, SWITZERLAND.

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for phosgene monitoring

    Phosgene COCl2 is a colorless gas. While it has been used as a Chemical Weapon Agent (CWA) in the past, currently this poisonous gas is also an important reagent in synthesis in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The plants using phosgene are typically equipped with gas sensors to detect leaks in the indoor ambient air. The critical situations arise when equipment in contact with the gas at the manufacturing facilities are serviced and maintained. As phosgene is very poisonous, even small gas pockets in serviced equipment may be dangerous to maintenance personnel. Gasmet™ FTIR Gas Analyzers are ideal tools to monitor point sources of phosgene. The measurement technology has high specificity, may be operated continuously, and has a fast response time.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for anesthetic gases

    The anesthetic gases and vapors which leak into the indoor atmosphere during medical procedures are considered waste anesthetic gases (WAGs). The exposure is of relevance to thousands of professionals in hospitals, operating theaters, patient recovery rooms, dental offices, and veterinary clinics around the world, who may be continually exposed to the waste anesthetic gases during their workday. Typical gases of concern include nitrous oxide N2O and several halogenated compounds in vapor form, such as sevoflurane, isoflurane, enflurane, halothane, desflurane, and methoxyflurane. Short-term exposure to these gases may lead to several symptoms, such as dizziness, headaches, fatigue, nausea. Long-term exposure to some of the anesthetic agents may result in sterility, birth defects, cancer, and liver and kidney disease.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Measurement solution for total VOC via FTIR

    Total Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is a common measurement required from industrial emissions. Commonly, a single measurement value is obtained through the use of a Flame Ionisation Detection (FID) analyser. The pyrolysis of the gas stream in a FID analyser allows it to make a measurement of the carbon content of the gas stream. FID analyser cannot indicate the relative abundances of different organic species in a gas stream and often have widely different responses for different gases. However, they are taken as the standard reference method for Total VOC emission measurements.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for VOC emissions monitoring

    Protea has used our VOC gas analysers in many projects requiring the monitoring of complex mixes of VOCs. In the chemical and pharmaceutical industry, VOC abatement plants such as scrubbers and carbon-bed systems are typical installations where the use of Protea analysers and our VOC analysis expertise have proved valuable to plant operators. They prove a very powerful and flexible tool in both process gas measurements and VOC emissions monitoring. In the laboratory, Protea can deliver instruments with all the chemometric software and support to enable users to measure hundreds of gases.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for HF emissions from brickworks

    Brick kilns, as well as other plants such as ceramics manufacturers and fertiliser producers, are a major producer of hydrogen fluoride (HF) emissions. HF is highly reactive gas and seriously damaging to human health, so has strict emissions limits imposed by legislation. In addition to the effects to humans, emissions have been found to damage crops and fruit trees, as well as the general environment. The brick industry strives to reduce the amount of HF emissions and numerous projects have been carried out into the research and development of proposed process modifications that introduce ways to reduce hydrogen fluoride emissions via the latest technology such as filters and scrubbers.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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