Gas Chromatography Applications

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  • Category: Monitoring & Testing ×

  • Subcategory: Gas Chromatography ×

Percent Aromatics in Gasoline #3008

by Guided Wave Inc,     based in Rancho Cordova, CALIFORNIA (USA)

The aromatic content of gasoline determines many of its combustion properties. Since it also impacts the environmental characteristics of the fuel it is desirable to have accurate measurements of this parameter. The traditional analytical method for measuring aromatics is either gas chromatography (GC) or an older method entitled fluorescent indicator adsorption (FIA), both of which are time and labor intensive. This note will discuss the use of Guided Wave hardware and software tools for the measurement of % aromatics in fuel products using fiber optic-based, Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. NIR can be applied in real time directly in process monitoring or as a laboratory procedure. In either case NIR is a time and money saving alternative to traditional methods. Request Application Note #3008

Rapid Determination of Pesticides in Spinach

by Sigma-Aldrich Co., LLC     based in Bellefonte, PENNSYLVANIA (USA)

Highly pigmented foods, such as spinach, require cleanup prior to analysis for pesticide residues. A dual-layer SPE tube containing graphitized carbon and aminopropyl on silica (NH2) is often used because; Carbon removes pigments and sterols and NH2 removes fatty acids, polar pigments, organic acids, and sugars. Removing these matrix materials reduces interferences that can lead to ion suppression in LC-MS, inlet contamination in GC-MS, and column contamination for both techniques. Our Supel Sphere Carbon/NH2 SPE tube uses spherical materials for both the carbon and NH2 layers, providing fast, more consistent flows compared to tubes containing granular material. This allows gravity elution (instead of vacuum elution) to be applied to Supel Sphere tubes, resulting in more contact time between extracts and sorbents.

Reduced Fat Interference with Analysis of Pesticides in Avocados

by Sigma-Aldrich Co., LLC     based in Bellefonte, PENNSYLVANIA (USA)

QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) is a very popular method for the extraction and cleanup of fruit and vegetable samples for pesticide residue analysis.2-4 The extraction step uses acetonitrile and a salting out effect (with MgSO4). Cleanup is then accomplished using dispersive SPE (dSPE) followed by a centrifuge step prior to analysis. This application shows the clean-up and analysis using Supel™ QuE Z-Sep+ QuEChERS and an SLB®-5ms GC column.

Measurement of C1-C5 with carbon dioxide for oil & gas exploration.

by MOCON - Baseline     based in Lyons, COLORADO (USA)

The PetroAlert Model 8900 combines the selectivity of gas chromatography with the sensitivity, broad dynamic range, and hydrocarbon selectivity of a flame ionization detector (FID) providing fast analysis of C1-C5 hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide required in Mud Logging for Oil & Gas exploration. The PetroAlert Model 8900 uses a dual column configuration with timed backflush to vent which is used to strip off moisture and C6+ hydrocarbons. A pre-cut column is used in series with the analytical column. At sample injection a fixed sample volume is carried to the pre-cut column. Backflush of the pre-cut column is timed from sample injection so that only C1-C5 hydrocarbons are eluted from the pre-cut column to the analytical column. C6+ hydrocarbons on the pre-cut column are then vented. Then a third column is used in conjunction with a second 10-port valve for individual analysis of methane. C1-C5 hydrocarbons are separated on the analytical column and elute to the flame ionization detector (FID) for analysis.

PTR-MS systems for petrochemical industry

by Ionicon Analytik Ges.m.b.H.     based in Innsbruck, AUSTRIA

Process monitoring in the petrochemical industry. Monitoring of syngas and other gas processes for safety, quality assurance and process optimization.

PTR-MS systems for biological research

by Ionicon Analytik Ges.m.b.H.     based in Innsbruck, AUSTRIA

Real-time measurement of plant defense and leaf wounding reactions. Measurement of VOCs in dynamic biological systems with low detection limit and without sample preparation.

X-ray fluorescence XRF analysis for environmental protection and waste management

by Bruker Corporation     based in Billerica, MASSACHUSETTS (USA)

To meet the requirements of new regulations and to protect the environment effectively, industries need techniques that enable the analysis of elements at lowest concentration levels. Bruker X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is the most suitable analytical technique for handling different kinds of materials. Bruker’s XRF, ICP-MS, GC, TOF-MS, FT-IR, CBRNE products and applications help you to monitor contaminated land efficiently and quickly, to determine hazardous elements in the air and water, as well as to classify waste material and to specify products for recycling and disposal. Whether solids, sludge, filters, liquids or powders: there is a fast and simple sample preparation technique for every material type.

Alkane (hydrocarbon) gas measurement for mudlogging in oil & gas drilling rigs

by MKS Instruments, Inc.     based in Andover, MASSACHUSETTS (USA)

The need for operator and maintainance intensive gas chromatograph (GC) analyzers was eliminated. Customer can now deploy all-optical, unattended sensor system for monitoring the composition of hydrocarbon gases (C1-C5) exiting the well bore which provides crucial information about the drilling formation that would save time and money.

Analysis of VOC compounds in water by Purge & Trap or dynamic headspace

by Chromatotec Group     based in Val de Virvée, FRANCE

Context & Challenges Volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be dissolved in water. Sometimes water is polluted and to study contamination of VOC in finished drinking water, VOC must be measured. Chromatotec® Solutions Chromatotec® has developed a specific system for the measurement of VOC in water: a Purge & Trap system, the airmoPURGE. The analyzer is coupled with a degasing system allowing the extraction of dissolved gases. The complete system is based on: - 502.2 method from US EPA – “Volatile organic compounds in water by purge and trap capillary column gas chromatography with photoionization and electrolytic conductivity detectors in series – Revision 2.1”. - 524.2 method from US EPA – “Measurement of purgeable organic compounds in water by capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry – Revision 4.0”.

Total sulfur measurement for sulfur compounds in CO2 for food & beverage industry

by MOCON - Baseline     based in Lyons, COLORADO (USA)

The BevAlert Model 8900 provides a total sulfur measurement for sulfur compounds in Carbon Dioxide. The measurement includes organic sulfides, Sulfur Dioxide, Carbonyl Sulfide, and Hydrogen Sulfide. The instrument is utilized by Specialty Gas Manufacturers and the Food and Beverage Industry to monitor sulfur compounds in CO2 used in carbonated beverages.

Chromatography systems for environmental monitoring

by Dikma Technologies Inc.     based in Lake Forest, CALIFORNIA (USA)

With the growth of contamination generated from agricultural and industrial production, it causes a threat to the enviroment including drinking water, atmosphere and soil. The chemists have always seeked out the effective analytical methods to detect and identify chemical contaminants. Dikma provides innovative products and application solutions according to government regulations and industry standards, for air and water quality monitoring, gas detection.

Flow meters for the general research flow solutions

by Sierra Instruments, Inc.     based in Monterey, CALIFORNIA (USA)

Our instruments are widely used by original equipment manufacturers of gas chromatographs, mixing and blending systems and other pieces of analytical equipment. The mulitple gas capability and wide choice of flow controlllers-for high pressure, very low flows and corrosive gases-offer customers excellent application flexibility.

Flow meters for analytical flow solutions

by Sierra Instruments, Inc.     based in Monterey, CALIFORNIA (USA)

Gas mass flow controllers are widely used in gas chromatographs in order to control carrier gases and to precision purge these instruments. Our instruments also find use in custom gas mixing and blending systems for environmental research.

Analysis of Pesticides in Beef Kidney

by Sigma-Aldrich Co., LLC     based in Bellefonte, PENNSYLVANIA (USA)

The suitability of the new cleanup sorbent, Supel QuE Z-Sep+, has been successfully demonstrated for cleanup of beef kidney matrix. It was found to effectively reduce background without significantly reducing recovery of lipophilic pesticides such as organochlorines and some pyrethroids. GC-MS full-scan data indicated Z-Sep+ was found to provide better cleanup in the form of reduced background than PSA/C18, and less interference in the GC-MS/SIM analysis of the target pesticides themselves.

Measurement of ethylene oxide for monitoring workplace exposure limits

by MOCON - Baseline     based in Lyons, COLORADO (USA)

The Series 8900 Ethylene Oxide Analyzer combines the selectivity of gas chromatography with the sensitivity of a Photoionization Detector (PID) providing interference free response to Ethylene Oxide (EtO) at levels below 0.05 ppm. This analytical method is referenced in OSHA`s `Occupational Exposure to Ethylene Oxide: Final Standard` 29 CFR Part 1910. The system documents exposure levels including: time-weighted averages (TWA), short-term exposure limits (STEL) and instantaneous alarms. Areas that are typically monitored include; EtO Sources - gas storage areas, sterilizer doors, aeration doors, and the General Work Area - decontamination, packaging and preparation and sterile product storage areas.

Measurement of C1-C5 hydrocarbons for oil & gas exploration.

by MOCON - Baseline     based in Lyons, COLORADO (USA)

The PetroAlert Model 8900 combines the selectivity of gas chromatography with the sensitivity, broad dynamic range, and hydrocarbon selectivity of a flame ionization detector (FID) providing fast analysis of C1-C5 hydrocarbons required in Mud Logging for Oil & Gas exploration. The PetroAlert Model 8900 uses a dual column configuration with timed backflush to vent which is used to strip off moisture and C6+ hydrocarbons. A pre-cut column is used in series with the analytical column. At sample injection a fixed sample volume is carried to the pre-cut column. Backflush of the pre-cut column is timed from sample injection so that only C1-C5 hydrocarbons are eluted from the pre-cut column to the analytical column. C6+ hydrocarbons on the pre-cut column are then vented. C1-C5 hydrocarbons are separated on the analytical column and elute to the flame ionization detector (FID) for analysis.

Fast C1 to C5 - PetroAlert Series 9100

by MOCON - Baseline     based in Lyons, COLORADO (USA)

The PetroAlert® Series 9100 combines the selectivity of gas chromatography with the sensitivity, broad dynamic range, and hydrocarbon selectivity of a flame ionization detector (FID) providing a 30 second analysis of C1-C5 hydrocarbons required in Mud Logging for Oil & Gas exploration, while maintaining C1-C2 separation at 200:1 concentration ratios.

Measurement solution for FTIR Vs. GC in gas analysis

by Protea Limited     based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM

Comparison of Technologies

A gas chromatograph (GC) has traditionally been the technology of choice for laboratory analysis of gas samples. GCs have been used for over 50 years in the qualification and quantification of complex mixtures of gases. The techniques and methodology required to run GCs are often a pre-requisite for any laboratory technician. Recent developments in Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) gas analysis has enabled this technology to start to replace GCs in the lab.

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