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Respirometry Applications

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity based consents

    Water companies, water authorities or publicly-owned treatment works (POTW) need to have some knowledge of the composition of the wastes they it receive. In addition to testing for ammonia and BOD or COD levels, treatment works can license industrial discharges on the basis of concentrations of some of the known toxic compounds. However, it is recognised that very many non-regulated toxic materials still enter the treatment works and reduce the efficiency of biodegradation, and may cause toxic shock. The way is now open for more widespread use of direct toxicity tests as a basis for toxicity-based consents. Samples of the industrial effluent are collected at source, for testing on the actual bacteria of the receiving activated sludge. The tests used are the Respiration Inhibition Test and the Nitrification Inhibition Test. Note that this approach mirrors that of the regulators of discharges to receiving waters, who are now using direct toxicity tests (DTA) or whole effluent toxicity tests (WET tests) in order to protect the receiving environment.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in Motherwell, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Respirometer Applications

    Measurement of the aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials (US Standard ASTM D5338, European Standard ISO 14855)

    By ECHO d.o.o. based in Slovenske Konjice, SLOVENIA.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity reduction tests

    In industrial manufacturing companies, before a new process comes on-line, it is important to measure the toxicity of the effluent stream. This is especially the case for companies who treat their own waste. From the toxicity value (EC50) obtained, it may be a cost-effective solution to simply discharge the effluent to the treatment works at a slow and defined rate to minimise damage to the activated sludge. Following a period of acclimatisation it is often possible to increase feed rates to the plant and this can again be managed using the Strathtox Respirometer. An alternative approach is to undertake toxicity reduction procedures, such as neutralisation or acid hydrolysis, in pilot-scale laboratory studies. The Respiration or the Nitrification Inhibition Test may be used for this. In the future, toxicity reduction may be stipulated by local authority, water company or publicly-owned treatment works prior to giving discharge consents. Toxicity reduction may be evaluated using toxicity tests on activated sludge provided by the treatment works.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in North Lanarkshire, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Biological waste water treatment plants solutions for beverage industry

    Due to the diversity of products in the beverage industry, there is also a great variation in waste water composition (flow and load) from this type of industry. This requires special attention and tailor made solutions for the design of a waste water plant for this industry.

    By HydroThane STP BV based in KC `s Hertogenbosch, NETHERLANDS.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for process optimisation

    Respiration rate of activated sludge has been recognised as a key controlling element in the modelling of process control, by the International Water Association Task Group. Actual respiration rate of the sludge in the aeration tanks, as well as the endogenous and maximum respiration rates are variables that indicate the rate of BOD removal and aeration requirements. The maximum respiration rate is also closely linked to the Critical Oxygen Concentration point, that is, the point at which diffusion over the bacterial cell walls ceases and therefore biodegradation is significantly compromised.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in North Lanarkshire, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity testing

    If industrial wastewater entering a treatment works contains toxic components the rate of biodegradation will be inhibited or stop completely. This can result in failed consents and will certainly give rise to operational problems. Visible indications include deflocculation, bulking and the appearance of filamentous bacteria. Sometimes, there are no visible effects. When the sludge bacteria are inhibited, there is the possibility of toxicity carryover in the effluent that is discharged to receiving waters. With new environmental legislation being introduced, worldwide, to protect the natural environment, toxin discharge is now a serious concern for treatment plant managers.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in North Lanarkshire, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Energy from the anaerobic wastewater treatment for the Food and Beverage industrial sector

    Industrial wastewater characterized by an high COD content are an interesting renewable source for the Food and beverage industrial sector which can have them readily available from their industrial processes. The COD contribution in the wastewater can be easily converted in biogas and then in green energy to reuse inside the factory as both electrical energy and thermal energy. This process can be applied with the installation of the UASB technology, implemented by Hydroitalia - Colsen in new and existing plants.

    By Hydroitalia - Colsen Srl based in Medicina, ITALY.

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    Biological waste water treatment plants solutions for bio ethanol distilleries

    The waste (water) streams from the production of (bio) ethanol or ethanol spirits are generally very suitable for anaerobic treatment, due to their organic compounds.

    By HydroThane STP BV based in KC `s Hertogenbosch, NETHERLANDS.

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    Respirometry for the soil industry

    By Challenge Technology based in Springdale, ARKANSAS (USA).

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    Respirometry for the wastewater industry

    By Challenge Technology based in Springdale, ARKANSAS (USA).

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity tracking

    If toxicity is identified in a mixed sewage entering a treatment works, the problem for the plant manager is to track and identify the source of the toxicity. This can be done by sampling the effluent stream at various points in its length. By working in a logical sequence back up the sewer network the number of samples can be minimised. This type of testing should be rigorously enforced for new product introduction by a waste producer, as well as sampling the effluents directly at source. The samples would be tested against the activated sludge of the receiving works, using the Respiration Inhibition Test or the Nitrification Inhibition Test.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in North Lanarkshire, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • XRF analysis for lead paint

    Niton analysers facilitate direct surface testing for lead paint, testing for lead in dust wipes from surfaces, testing the lead content of soil in the surrounding area (containment) and the testing of lead content in filters from respirators or volume air samplers for worker/public protection.

    By Niton UK Limited based in Woodmancott, Winchester, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for monitoring activated sludge health - sour test

    Respiration rate monitoring of Antwerp treatment works showed periods when the activated sludge was up to 40% inhibited, with resultant sludge washout episodes. Using the Health monitoring test, a pattern of ‘normal’ respiration rates for a plant can be determined. Lower respiration rates will alert the treatment works to a chronic toxicity problem, allowing corrective actions to be taken. Toxicity monitoring can now be carried out on a routine daily basis, at all treatment works receiving potentially toxic wastewaters. This is especially important if there has been a history of poor plant performance.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in North Lanarkshire, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Respirometry for the biofuels industry

    By Challenge Technology based in Springdale, ARKANSAS (USA).

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    Respirometry for composting

    By Challenge Technology based in Springdale, ARKANSAS (USA).

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    Oxygen monitoring from aerobic and anaerobic for toxicity test

    Toxicity of pure chemicals is assessed using respirometers by adding increasing concentrations to an active culture. The concentration at which oxygen uptake or gas production begins to decrease is known as the “threshold toxicant concentration.”

    By Respirometer Systems and Applications, LLC based in Springdale, ARKANSAS (USA).

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    Oxygen monitoring from aerobic and anaerobic for biomass activity tests

    Pulse-Flow respirometers can be used to assess biomass activity for aerobic and anaerobic reactions. In aerobic tests, cultures are combined with nutrients, trace minerals, and an organic substrate – such as acetic acid or ethanol. The maximum oxygen uptake rate reflects the amount of active biomass in the test culture.

    By Respirometer Systems and Applications, LLC based in Springdale, ARKANSAS (USA).

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    Biological waste water treatment plants solutions for the chemical industry

    In addition to the food industry, biological anaerobic and aerobic technologies can be applied in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry as well.

    By HydroThane STP BV based in KC `s Hertogenbosch, NETHERLANDS.

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