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Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Monitoring Applications

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    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) applications

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an emerging method of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of power plants. In a process called ‘scrubbing’, the carbon dioxide emissions can be absorbed into chemical solvents consisting of amines or carbonates. Scrubbing is a well-established method of carbon capture, with virtually every commercial CO2 capture plant in operation using this process. In the process, the first step is the removal of impurities from the flue gas, such as hydrocarbons and oxides of both nitrogen and sulfur (NOx and SOx). Next the purified gas is passed through an absorption column filled with the chemical scrubbing solvent. The solvent reacts with the carbon dioxide and selectively absorbs it from the gas stream. When CO2-rich solvent is heated, the carbon dioxide is released as a nearly pure gas.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Fluoride emissions monitoring in aluminum smelters

    Production of aluminum from its ores at aluminum smelters results in carbon dioxide CO2, carbon monoxide CO, sulfur dioxide SO2, and hydrogen fluoride HF gas emissions during the electrolytic process phase to the atmosphere. The gas emissions need to be monitored. Typically the smelters have emission limit values (ELVs) for sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride emissions. These emissions should be measured accurately and with good precision, to ensure the smelter does not exceed its emission limit values. In addition several fluoride compounds may be produced in the electrolytic bath in the event of an oxygen shortage. These compounds include carbon tetrafluoride CF4, hexafluoroethane C2F6, sulfur hexafluoride SF6, and silicon tetrafluoride SiF4. These additional emission components are problematic, as they have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) values. The GWP is a relative measure designed to demonstrate how much heat a greenhouse gas (GHG) traps in the atmosphere. Emission of one kilogram of carbon tetrafluoride into the atmosphere today has the potential of heating the atmosphere as much as 7,000 kilograms of carbon dioxide over the next 100 years.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Measurement solution for QAL2 EN 14181

    BS EN 14181 is a quality assurance standard relevant to plants operating under the Large Combustion Plant (LCPD) and Waste Incineration (WID) Directives. Quality Assurance Level 2 (QAL2) of this standard involves the parallel testing of the plant automated measurement systems (AMS) against a certified test house, making measurements with a comparative standard.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Emissions Monitoring

    The Opsis monitoring solution in aluminium smelters is based on either DOAS or laser diode technique. The on-line, open-path systems are used for monitoring HF and sulphur dioxide in potrooms, in fence-line applications and in continuous emissions monitoring. Opsis has long experience of monitoring in aluminium smelters.

    By Opsis AB based in Furulund, SWEDEN.

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    Continuous emissions monitoring for brick plants

    Process control and emissions monitoring in a brick plant is a challenge due to the high concentrations of HF. The HF is generated in the process and gas phase HF can reach 50 mg/m3 or more. To use an extractive system in this environment will demand a lot of maintanence.

    By Opsis AB based in Furulund, SWEDEN.

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    Odor control for tank cleaning

    When it comes to odor management, simply cleaning the tank isn’t enough to remove the odors. Prior to cleaning, storage tanks are vented to the atmosphere in order to reduce the internal gas content to a level below its lower explosion limit (LEL). This permits safe worker access. During venting, odors escape into the atmosphere creating a nuisance to nearby residents, businesses, and employees. Furthermore, storage tank cleaning results in production downtime that reduces plant profitability.

    By OMI Industries (OMI) based in Long Grove, ILLINOIS (USA).

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    Applications and Air Pollutants Removed in the Agricultural Industry

    Particulate and gaseous control on Bagasse and Biomass fueled boilers. Sugar scrubbing and recovery. Removal of sulfur dioxide and ethylene oxide from fruit and vegetable ripening and drying rooms.

    By Bionomic Industries Inc. based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA).

  • Refineries & Refinery Emissions Monitoring & Analysis

    Procal supplies the oil refining industry with both process and emission monitoring analysers to meet a wide range of applications.

    By Procal - Parker Hannifin Corp based in Peterborough, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Gas Detection Solutions for Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) Safety

    Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) is a very useful chemical used in a variety of industries. However, HF is highly toxic with potential fatal consequences with exposure to humans, so facilities that make or use HF should exercise great care. Nevertheless, there is always the risk of leaks from process elements such as valves, pump seals and storage vessels. Tanker loading, transporting and unloading operations also provide opportunity for HF releases. Industrial processes that make or use HF typically have arrays of point sensors distributed throughout the unit. However, these sensors are maintenance intensive and have relatively slow response times. In addition, a point sensor will not detect an HF release unless it is located directly in the area of that release. Electrochemical HF sensors also respond to chlorine, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide, resulting in false alarms.

    By Boreal Laser Inc. based in Edmonton, ALBERTA (CANADA).

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for engine emissions measurements

    The exhaust gas from combustion engines is a complex mixture of gases and particulate matter. The composition of the gas may change rapidly. Multicomponent analysis of exhaust gases can be performed with a Gasmet™ FTIR Gas Analyzer with a response time (T90) of one second. The winning combination is the result using of a small volume gas sample cell, a powerful sample pump and a fast detector with liquid nitrogen cooling. The analyzer, sampling system and computer can be assembled on a cart for use in a dynamometer laboratory, or the portable version can be used for roadside tests.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for stack testing

    Several EU directives and national laws in European countries set requirements for continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions at power plants. Further requirements are set on the quality assurance of the installed measurement systems at the plants. The relevant standard in this regard is EN 14181:2004, the quality assurance of automated measuring systems. The standard dictates how to determine that the measurement systems installed for continuous emissions monitoring at a plant operate according to the directives and regulations set. Two major parts of this on-going quality assurance cycle are the QAL2 and AST procedures. A test laboratory performs tests on the systems on-site, and determines whether the systems fulfill the set requirements or not.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Gas analysis & monitoring system for emission monitoring

    From the environmental point of view, an issue is any solid, liquid or gaseous substance introduced into the atmosphere that can cause air pollution. Given the wide variety of substances present in the atmosphere, have been proposed several methods of classification: Primary pollutants can be of gaseous or particulate.

    By ETG Risorse e Tecnologia based in Montiglio, ITALY.

  • SO2 Monitoring in Air

    SO2 (sulfur dioxide) is measured in a number of applications. SO2 is used as a food grade preservative and must be regulated in accordance with government-set criteria to be safe for consumers. It is also measured in fuel exhaust to control for environmental pollution and in cement plants for process control.

    By Unisearch Associates Inc. based in Concord, ONTARIO (CANADA).

  • Total Sulfur monitoring

    Total Sulfur includes all the gases described within total reduced sulfur, as well as sulfur dioxide as these compounds are oxidised forms of sulfur. Exposure to sulfur dioxides, and other reduced sulfur based compounds can cause many harmful effects in humans including headaches, general discomfort up to death in large doses. Those with impaired heart or lung function and asthmatics are at increased risk. Sulfur dioxide, one of the major pollutants, is absorbed by soils and plants and captured within and below clouds and in certain circumstances can increase the acidity of rain.

    By Ecotech Pty Ltd based in Knoxfield, AUSTRALIA.

  • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) monitoring

    Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is the product of the combustion of sulfur compounds and causes significant environmental pollution. The main source of sulfur dioxide SO2 in the environment are from various industrial processes such as the burning of coal in power stations, the extraction of metals from ore and combustion of fuel within automobiles.

    By Ecotech Pty Ltd based in Knoxfield, AUSTRALIA.

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    Raw-gas monitoring for scrubber optimizing

    The consumption of scrubbing material in a scrubber is related to the mass flow of acid gases. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are the major acid gases in an incinerator. By measuring the mass flow of SO2 and HCl in the raw gas going into the scrubber, it is possible to calculate the required quantity of scrubbing material.

    By Opsis AB based in Furulund, SWEDEN.

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    Ambient air quality monitoring for governments

    SO2 monitoring for the US NCore network, a multi pollutant network to measure  particles, pollutant gases and meteorology.

    By Teledyne Advanced Pollution Instrumentation (TAPI) based in San Diego, CALIFORNIA (USA).

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