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Turbidity Monitoring Applications

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    Water Testing for Environmental Applications

    Keeping the water in our lakes, rivers, and streams clean requires monitoring of water quality at many points as it gradually makes its way from its source to our oceans. Over the years ever increasing environmental concerns and regulations have heightened the need for increased diligence and tighter restrictions on wastewater quality. Control of water pollution was once concerned mainly with treating wastewater before it was discharged from a manufacturing facility into the nation`s waterways. Today, in many cases, there are restrictions on wastewater that is discharged to city sewer systems or to other publicly owned treatment facilities. Many jurisdictions even restrict or regulate the runoff of stormwater — affecting not only industrial and commercial land, but also residential properties as well.

    By Myron L Company based in Carlsbad, CALIFORNIA (USA).

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    Monitoring of hydrocarbons in bilge water

    The Situation

    Various processes onboard ships, such as machinery wash-down, maintenance, and leakage, generate oily wastewater. This contaminated water flow collects in the bilge of the ship. Marine diesel, lubricating oils, grease, as well as other contaminants may be present in bilge water. The bilge water is discharged overboard, with oil and grease concentrations in the discharged water limited by national and international regulations.

    By Turner Designs Hydrocarbon Instruments, Inc. based in Fresno, CALIFORNIA (USA).

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    Monitoring once through cooling water

    The Situation

    Power plants and paper mills use service water loops and mill water loops respectively for the cooling of lubricating, hydraulic, turbine and transformer oil.  These cooling systems feature large, recirculating volumes of water which are treated with biocides, dispersants, and corrosion inhibitors. By comparison, refineries often use once through cooling water systems. The cooling water is taken from lakes, rivers, or the ocean and circulated once through the plant to cool processes. Large volumes of water are used to keep the return water temperature low enough to prevent adverse effects on the environment.

    By Turner Designs Hydrocarbon Instruments, Inc. based in Fresno, CALIFORNIA (USA).

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    Monitoring of hydroelectric dam sumps

    The Situation

    Hydroelectric dams produce electric power by harnessing the force of the water flowing through the dam. There are numerous sources for oil spillage:

    • The hydroelectric turbines are lubricated by lubrication oils.
    • The very large water control valves are normally hydraulic powered and are lubricated with various greases and oils.
    • Vehicles including fork lifts, trucks, etc., can spill oils and fuels.

    Any accidental spillage of oil or grease or intentional wash down water containing minor amounts of oils, greases, and detergents must be collected and treated before discharge to the river. These fluids along with any water leaks are collected in sumps in the dam and are regularly pumped out. In many cases, the volume of water is substantial.

    By Turner Designs Hydrocarbon Instruments, Inc. based in Fresno, CALIFORNIA (USA).

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    Gas analysis & monitoring systems for dust

    Particulate matter, suspended particulate matter, atmospheric dust, particulate matter, total suspended particulate (TSP), are terms that commonly identify the group of substances suspended in the air (fibers, carbon particles, metals, silica, polluting liquid or solid). Particulate matter is the pollutant that is now considered the greatest impact in urban areas, and is composed of all those solid and liquid particles dispersed in the atmosphere, with a diameter ranging from a few nanometers to 500 microns and above (ie billionths of a meter to half a millimeter).

    By ETG Risorse e Tecnologia S.r.l. based in Montiglio, ITALY.

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    Gas analysis & monitoring systems for emission monitoring

    From the environmental point of view, an issue is any solid, liquid or gaseous substance introduced into the atmosphere that can cause air pollution. Given the wide variety of substances present in the atmosphere, have been proposed several methods of classification: Primary pollutants can be of gaseous or particulate.

    By ETG Risorse e Tecnologia S.r.l. based in Montiglio, ITALY.

  • Monitoring industrial trade discharge for wastewater treatement industry

    Industry has had to respond to the requirements of progressive environmental legislation such as the Urban Waste Water Directive, IPC, IPPC and now the EPR (Environmental Permitting Regulations). As successive legislation becomes more stringent, discharge consents have been progressively tightened, and the need for self-regulation has become more important. As a consequence, on-line instrumentation has been installed throughout waste-water industry to continuously to provide trade discharge monitoring and perform continuous water analysis for key consent parameters.

    By Pollution & Process Monitoring Ltd based in Sevenoaks, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Continuous Instream Monitoring

    Turbidity in natural waters is recognized as an important indicator of its environmental health, and because it's a good surrogate for suspended sediment, monitoring turbidity has always been the "holy grail" for hydrologists. But because of earlier technology, "turbidity" has traditionally been a "bad word". The DTS-12 turbidity sensor is the first sensor to make turbidity monitoring practical, and no longer difficult, inaccurate, expensive, or labor-intensive. Turbidity is the cloudiness or murkiness of water caused by suspended organic or inorganic materials. Turbidity in natural waters is recognized as an important indicator of its environmental health.

    By FTS based in Victoria, BRITISH COLUMBIA (CANADA).

  • Sediment and Nutrient Loads

    SedEvent is an event-driven, automatic grab sampling system that provides a simple and practical method of accurately determining suspended sediment and nutrient loads. While suspended sediment concentration (SSC) cannot be directly measured accurately or reliably, turbidity has been shown to be an excellent surrogate for SSC. Turbidity is caused by suspended particulate matter such as clay, silt, algae, organic and inorganic chemicals and acids like fertilizers, and microscopic organisms like harmful bacteria. These contents give water its cloudy or turbid appearance, and turbidity in natural waters is recognized as an important indicator of natural health. Measuring suspended sediment concentrations used to be labor-intensive, costly, inaccurate and impractical. SedEvent not only makes it possible and practical, it makes it simple.

    By FTS based in Victoria, BRITISH COLUMBIA (CANADA).

  • Haze Monitoring

    The principle cause of regional and urban haze, or visibility impairment, is light extinction caused by fine particles, sulfates, organic and elemental carbon, nitrates and crustal matter. Particles between 0.1 and one micrometers in size are most effective at scattering light, in addition to being of greatest concern for human health.

    By Ecotech Pty Ltd based in Knoxfield, AUSTRALIA.

  • EPR waste minimisation monitoring for wastewater treatment industry

    The EPR regulations have replaced the IPPC regulations and are effective from May 2009 for qualifying companies within the industrial sector and October 2009 within the water sector. They will progressively require industry to minimise waste, reduce product loss and implement improved process control. The legislation will require the operator to self monitor processes and discharges, to demonstrate effective control with particular emphasis on EPR compliance and prevention. The regulating Agency will operate a point scoring system to assess operators under the OMA-3 program and this will be used to identify how well a company is managing their processes and possibly identify areas for improvement. The Environmental Permitting Regulations require industry to install instrumentation (MCERTS approved where available) to report water quality. EPR compliance monitoring may include automatic water sampling, flow measurement, pH, turbidity and TOC water analysis. Industry will need to identify point of source emissions, take steps to correct inefficient control and alarm unacceptable process deviations. Although the legislation focuses on environmental improvement, good housing keeping also makes a lot of sense. Optimisation of process control minimises waste, reduces treatment costs and ultimately saves money.

    By Pollution & Process Monitoring Ltd based in Sevenoaks, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Turbidity Monitoring

    The monitoring of Turbidity is key requirement of the water industry in both water supply and water recovery systems. Within the water supply process, monitoring of turbidity allows operators to assess the efficiency of filters for particulate removal through the process. Similarly, with water recovery (Waste Water Treatment Works), the measurement of turbidity is a key parameter to track the removal of particulate through the process. CTG can provide turbidity measurements with the UniLux sensor, or provides turbidity as one of the parameters available within the 3 channel TriLux. For applications requiring turbidity measurements compliant to ISO07027:1999, CTG can offer the TurbiLux Nephelometer.

    By Chelsea Technologies Group based in West Molesey, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Process monitoring and controlling for wastewater treatment industry

    Automation can save money, optimise a process and give warning of potential breeches of discharge consent. However, instrument selection is fundamentally important if a control system is to function efficiently. The measurement device must accurately and quickly respond to process variations and it must be reliable in operation if the control system is to function as intended. Designed properly, energy and chemical use can be significantly reduced, saving money and ultimately improving effluent quality.

    By Pollution & Process Monitoring Ltd based in Sevenoaks, UNITED KINGDOM.

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