2013 European Renewable Energy Industry Policy Handbook Report

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The report presents an in-depth analysis of the renewable energy policies across the major countries in Europe namely Germany, France, Italy, the UK, Spain, Austria, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden and Turkey. The report provides the current and future renewable energy targets and plans along with the present policy framework, giving a fair idea of overall growth potential of their renewable energy industry. The report also provides major technology specific policies and incentives provided in each of these countries. The report also provides insights to major policy initiatives for the market development of renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, biopower and biofuels. A comparative snapshot of major policy instruments in these countries to support the renewable energy industry has also been provided in this report at http://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/267223-europe-renewable-energy-policy-handbook-2013.html. Information related to energy efficiency schemes in these countries has also ben provided.

Scope

  • The report details promotional measures in different countries both for the overall renewable energy industry and for specific renewable energy technologies namely solar, wind, geothermal, hydro and bioenergy.
  • The report also highlights the differences and focus of the renewable energy policy frameworks in different countries in Europe.
  • The report provides a platform for comparison of various renewable energy policies across countries. Major countries include Germany, France, Italy, the UK, Spain, Austria, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden and Turkey.

Reasons To Buy (http://www.reportsnreports.com/Purchase.aspx?name=267223) :

  • Develop business strategies with the help of specific insights about policy decisions being taken on renewable energy by different markets.
  • Identify opportunities and challenges in exploiting the renewable energy markets.
  • Compare the level of support provided to different renewable energy technologies in different countries.
  • Increase future revenue and profitability with the help of insights on the future opportunities and critical success factors in the renewable energy market.
  • Be ahead of competition by keeping yourself abreast of all the latest policy changes.

Table of Contents for this research report:

1 Table of Contents 2
1.1 List of Tables 14
1.2 List of Figures 16

2 Executive Summary 18
2.1 The European Union’s Directive to Promote Renewables will Bolster the Share of Renewable Energy in the Member States 18
2.2 Government Policy Measures Play a Vital Role in Driving Renewable Energy Development 18
2.3 Germany Led the Renewable Energy Industry in the EU Region in 2012 19

3 GlobalData Report Guidance 20

4 Overview of Renewable Energy Sources 21

5 Introduction to Renewable Energy Policy 23
5.1 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Global, Overview 23
5.2 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Global, Major Policy Measures 23
5.2.1 Feed-In Tariff (FIT) Program 23
5.2.2 Renewable Portfolio Standards 23
5.2.3 Tradable Renewable Energy Certificates Systems 24
5.2.4 Capital Subsidies and Grants/Rebates 24
5.2.5 Energy Production Payments/Investments or Other Tax Credits 24
5.2.6 Tax Reductions 24
5.2.7 Net Metering 24
5.2.8 Public Investment Loans 24

6 Renewable Energy Market, Europe 25
6.1 Renewable Energy Market 25
6.2 Renewable Energy Targets 27
6.3 Renewable Energy Support Policies Comparison 27
6.4 Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Action Plans 28
6.4.1 National Renewable Energy Action Plan 28
6.4.2 National Energy Efficiency Action Plans 28

7 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Germany 30
7.1 Renewable Energy, Germany, Overview 30
7.2 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Germany, Major Policies and Incentives 30
7.2.1 Germany Renewable Energy, Targets 32
7.2.1.1 Targets 32
7.2.2 Renewable Energy Sources Act 32
7.2.3 Market Premium 33
7.2.4 Federal Building Codes for Renewable Energy Production 33
7.2.5 Integrated Climate Change and Energy Program 34
7.2.6 Renewable Energy Heat Act (Erneuerbare-Energien-Warmegesetz) 34
7.2.7 Combined Heat and Power Law – Kraft-Wärme-Kopplungs Modernisierungsgesetz 35
7.2.8 Sixth Energy Research Program 35
7.2.9 Law on Energy and Climate Fund 36
7.2.10 Market Incentive Program 36
7.2.11 KfW Renewable Energy Program 37
7.2.12 KfW Energy Turnaround Financing Initiative 38
7.2.13 Renewable Energy Surcharge 38
7.3 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Solar Power, Germany 39
7.3.1 FITs for Solar PV under EEG 40
7.4 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Wind Power, Germany 41
7.4.1 Feed-In Tariff for Wind under EEG 42
7.4.2 Repowering Policy 43
7.4.3 Support for Offshore Development 43
7.4.4 KfW Program for Offshore Wind Energy 44
7.5 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Geothermal Power, Germany 44
7.5.1 Feed-In Tariff for Geothermal 44
7.6 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Hydropower, Germany 44
7.6.1 Feed-In Tariff for Hydropower under EEG 45
7.7 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Bioenergy, Germany 45
7.7.1 Premium Tariff for Biogas Plants 46
7.7.2 Feed-In Tariff for Bioenergy under the EEG 46
7.7.3 The Biofuel Quota Law 47
7.7.4 Energy Tax for Biofuels 48
7.8 Policy Support for Energy Efficiency, Germany 48
7.8.1 KfW Energy-Efficient Refurbishment Program 48
7.8.2 KfW Energy-Efficient Construction 49
7.8.3 KfW Energy Efficiency Program 49
7.8.4 KfW Energy Efficient Refurbishment – Construction Supervision 49
7.8.5 KfW SME Energy Efficiency Advice 49

8 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, France 51
8.1 Renewable Energy, France, Overview 51
8.2 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, France, Major Policies and Incentives 51
8.2.1 France Renewable Energy, Targets 53
8.2.1.1 Targets 53
8.2.2 Electricity Act 2000 53
8.2.3 Grenelle Environmental Plan 53
8.2.4 Renewable Energy FITs 55
8.2.5 Tenders 55
8.2.6 The CSPE Tax 55
8.2.7 Crédit d’impôt 56
8.2.8 Reduction in VAT for Renewable Energy Projects 57
8.2.9 Heat Fund 58
8.2.10 Fonds de Garantie des Investissements de Maîtrise de L'énergie 59
8.2.11 Fonds d'Investissements de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie 59
8.2.12 National Strategy for Research and Development in the Field of Energy 59
8.3 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Solar Power, France 60
8.3.1 FITs for Solar PV 60
8.4 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Wind Power, France 62
8.4.1 FITs for Wind Power 63
8.4.2 Wind Developpement Zone 64
8.4.3 Offshore Wind Tender 64
8.5 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Geothermal Power, France 65
8.5.1 FITs for Geothermal Power 65
8.6 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Hydropower, France 65
8.6.1 Feed-In Tariff for Hydropower 65
8.6.2 Renewal of Hydroelectric Concessions 66
8.7 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Bioenergy, France 66
8.7.1 FITs for Biomass Power 66
8.7.2 67
8.7.3 Quota Obligation for Biofuels 67
8.7.4 Tax Rebate for Biofuels 68
8.8 Policy Support for Energy Efficiency, France 68
8.8.1 White Certificate Trading 68
8.8.2 Reduction in VAT for Home Renovation 69
8.8.3 Zero Percent Interest Green Loan 69

9 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Italy 72
9.1 Renewable Energy, Italy, Overview 72
9.2 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Italy, Major Policies and Incentives 72
9.2.1 Italy Renewable Energy, Targets 74
9.2.1.1 Targets 74
9.2.2 Promotion of Energy from Renewable Sources – Decree for Implementing EU Directive 2009/28/EC 74
9.2.3 Introduction of the Green Certificates System 74
9.2.4 Feed-In Tariff I (Tariffa Onnicomprensiva) 76
9.2.5 Feed-In Tariff II (ritiro dedicato) 77
9.2.6 Premium Tariff I (Conto Energia V) 78
9.2.6.1 PV installations 78
9.2.6.2 Integrated PV installations with innovative characteristics 79
9.2.6.3 Concentration PV plants 79
9.2.7 Premium Tariff II 80
9.2.8 Premium Tariff III 81
9.2.9 Net Metering (Scambio Sul Posto) 81
9.2.10 Tenders 83
9.2.11 Reduction in Value Added Tax 83
9.2.12 Reduction in Real Estate Tax 83
9.2.13 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Solar Power, Italy 83
9.2.14 Feed-In Tariff for Solar Power 84
9.2.14.1 Feed-In Tariff for 2013 85
9.2.15 New Subsidy Scheme for Solar Thermal Power, 2013 87
9.3 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Wind Power, Italy 88
9.3.1 FITs for Wind Power 88
9.4 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Geothermal Power, Italy 89
9.4.1 FITs 89
9.5 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Hydropower, Italy 89
9.5.1 FITs 89
9.6 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Bioenergy, Italy 89
9.6.1 FITs for Biopower 89
9.6.2 Loans to Biomass Projects 89
9.6.3 Biodiesel Aid Scheme 89
9.6.4 National Plan for Biofuels and Biomass 90
9.7 Policy Support for Energy Efficiency, Italy 90
9.7.1 Climate Change Action Plan 90
9.7.2 Utility Targets for Increasing Energy Efficiency 90
9.7.3 National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 91
9.7.4 Funding for Energy Efficiency, Renewable energy and Bike-sharing 92
9.7.5 Kyoto Fund 92
9.7.6 Promotion of High Efficiency Cogeneration 92

10 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, The UK 93
10.1 Renewable Energy, the UK, Overview 93
10.2 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, the UK, Major Policies and Incentives 93
10.2.1 UK Renewable Energy, Targets 95
10.2.1.1 Mandatory Targets 95
10.2.2 Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Act 95
10.2.3 Climate Change Act 95
10.2.4 Energy Act 2004 95
10.2.5 Energy Act 2008 96
10.2.6 Planning and Energy Act 2008 96
10.2.7 Renewable Energy Strategy 2009 97
10.2.8 Renewable Energy Guarantees of Origin 97
10.2.9 Renewable Obligation Order 98
10.2.10 101
10.2.11 Feed-In Tariff 101
10.2.12 Climate Change Levy 101
10.2.13 Environmental Transformation Fund 102
10.2.14 Renewable Heat Incentive 103
10.2.15 Energy White Paper, 2011 104
10.2.16 Renewable Energy Roadmap, 2011 105
10.3 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Solar Power, the UK 106
10.3.1 Feed-In Tariff 107
10.3.2 New Renewable Obligation Scheme 107
10.4 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Wind Power, the UK 108
10.4.1 Feed-In Tariff 108
10.4.2 Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Task Force 109
10.4.3 The Offshore Transmission Owner Initiative 110
10.5 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Geothermal Power, the UK 110
10.5.1 Renewable Obligation, Geothermal 110
10.6 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Hydropower, the UK 111
10.6.1 Feed-In Tariff 111
10.6.2 Renewable Obligation, Hydro 111
10.7 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Bioenergy, the UK 111
10.7.1 Feed-In Tariff 112
10.7.2 Bioenergy Infrastructure Scheme 112
10.7.3 Bioenergy Capital Grants Scheme 113
10.7.4 Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation 113
10.8 Policy Support for Energy Efficiency, the UK 114
10.8.1 Energy Efficiency Action Plan 114
10.8.2 Low Carbon Transition Plan 114
10.8.3 Low Carbon Industrial Strategy 115
10.8.4 Reduced VAT for Energy-saving Materials 116
10.8.5 Enhanced Capital Allowances 117
10.8.6 CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme 117

11 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Spain 119
11.1 Renewable Energy, Spain, Overview 119
11.2 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Spain, Major Policies and Incentives 119
11.2.1 Spain Renewable Energy, Targets 121
11.2.1.1 Targets 121
11.2.2 Legislation Enacted in 2012 and 2013 121
11.2.2.1 The Royal Decree-Law 1/2012 121
11.2.2.2 RDL 13/2012 121
11.2.2.3 RDL 20/2012 121
11.2.2.4 Law 15/2012 122
11.2.2.5 RDL 29/2012 122
11.2.2.6 RDL 2/2013 123
11.2.3 Sustainable Economy Act 123
11.2.4 FITs for Renewable Power 124
11.2.5 Tax Regulation Mechanisms 125
11.3 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Solar Power, Spain 126
11.3.1 FITs for 2013 127
11.4 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Wind Power, Spain 128
11.4.1 Mandatory Local Content Requirement 129
11.4.2 FITs for 2013 129
11.4.3 Grid Connection of Small Wind Turbines 129
11.4.4 Offshore Wind Power Regulations 130
11.4.5 Offshore Wind Power Demonstration Projects 130
11.5 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Hydropower, Spain 130
11.5.1 Hydro FITs 130
11.6 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Bioenergy, Spain 131
11.6.1 FITs for Biomass and Biogas Power Plants 131
11.6.2 Mandatory Biofuel Requirement 131
11.6.3 Promotion of Biofuels and Other Renewable Fuels 132
11.6.4 Regulation of the Allocation of Biodiesel Production Quotas that will Count towards the Achievement of the Mandatory Targets for Biofuels 132
11.6.5 Excise Duty Reductions for Biofuels 132
11.7 Policy Support for Energy Efficiency, Spain 132
11.7.1 Technical Building Code 132
11.7.2 Energy Saving and Efficiency Action Plan (2011–2020) 133

12 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Austria 134
12.1 Renewable Energy, Austria, Overview 134
12.2 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Austria, Major Policies and Incentives 134
12.2.1 Austria Renewable Energy, Targets 136
12.2.1.1 Targets 136
12.2.2 Green Electricity Act 136
12.2.2.1 Amendments to the Green Electricity Act, 2008 and 2009 137
12.2.2.2 Amendment to the Green Electricity Act, 2012 137
12.2.3 Klima: Aktiv Program 137
12.2.4 Bilateral Partnerships to Promote Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency 138
12.2.5 The Climate and Energy Fund 138
12.2.6 Combined Heat and Power Law 139
12.2.7 FITs 139
12.3 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Solar Power, Austria 140
12.3.1 Feed-In Tariff for Solar Power 141
12.3.2 Investment Subsidies 141
12.4 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Wind Power, Austria 142
12.4.1 Feed-In Tariff 142
12.4.2 Green Electricity Act – Wind Power Target 143
12.5 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Geothermal Power, Austria 143
12.5.1 Feed-In Tariff 143
12.5.2 Investment Subsidies 143
12.6 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Hydropower, Austria 143
12.6.1 Feed-In Tariff 143
12.6.2 Investment Subsidy 144
12.7 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Bioenergy, Austria 144
12.7.1 Feed-In Tariff for Biopower 144
12.7.2 Five-Point Action Plan for Natural Gas and Biogas 145
12.7.3 Financial Incentives for Rural Biomass Energy Generation 145
12.7.4 Quota Obligation for Biofuels 145
12.7.5 Tax Advantage on Biofuels 146
12.8 Policy Support for Energy Efficiency, Austria 146
12.8.1 Energy Efficiency Action Plan 146
12.8.2 Federal Promotion of Extraordinary Efficiency in Buildings 146
12.8.3 Energy Efficiency in Industry 146
12.8.4 Third Party Financing for Efficiency Investment 147

13 Renewable Energy Framework, The Netherlands 148
13.1 Renewable Energy, the Netherlands, Overview 148
13.2 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, the Netherlands, Major Policies and Incentives 148
13.2.1 149
13.2.2 150
13.2.3 The Netherlands Renewable Energy, Targets 150
13.2.3.1 Targets 150
13.2.4 Stimulering Duurzame Energie 150
13.2.5 SDE+ 150
13.2.5.1 SDE+ 2012 151
13.2.5.2 SDE+ 2013 154
13.2.6 Net Metering 157
13.2.7 Guarantees of Origin 157
13.2.8 Green Fund Scheme 158
13.2.9 Energie-investeringsaftrek 158
13.2.10 Milieu-investeringsaftrek 159
13.2.11 Willekeurige afschrijving voor milieu-investeringen 160
13.2.12 Environmental Protection Tax 160
13.3 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Solar Power, the Netherlands 161
13.3.1 Subsidy 162
13.4 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Wind Power, the Netherlands 162
13.4.1 Green Deal 163
13.4.2 FLOW Program 164
13.4.3 The North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid Initiative 164
13.5 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Bioenergy, the Netherlands 165
13.5.1 Dutch Biofuel Policy 165
13.6 Policy Support for Energy Efficiency, the Netherlands 166
13.6.1 Energieprestatieadvies 166
13.6.2 Energy Performance Standard for Buildings – Energieprestatie Nieuwbouw 166

14 Renewable Energy Framework, Norway 167
14.1 Renewable Energy, Norway, Overview 167
14.2 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Norway, Major Policies and Incentives 167
14.2.1 Norway Renewable Energy, Targets 169
14.2.1.1 Targets 169
14.2.2 Renewable Quota Obligation 169
14.2.3 Norway-Sweden Green Certificate Scheme 171
14.2.4 Enova SF 171
14.2.5 CO2 tax 172
14.2.6 Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership 173
14.2.7 Clean Energy for the Future Program, 2004–2012 173
14.2.8 Clean Energy for the Future (ENERGIX) Program, 2013–2022 174
14.2.9 Implementation of the EU's Renewable Energy Directive 174
14.2.10 Energi21 – R&D Strategy for the Energy Sector 175
14.2.11 White Paper on National Climate Policy 175
14.2.12 The EU Seventh Framework Program for Research 176
14.3 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Wind Power, Norway 177
14.3.1 Wind Farm Concessions 178
14.3.2 Enova’s Wind Power Program 178
14.3.3 Offshore Energy Act 179
14.4 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Hydropower, Norway 180
14.4.1 The Strategy for Small-Scale Hydropower 180
14.5 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Bioenergy, Norway 180
14.5.1 Bioenergy Strategy 180
14.6 Policy Support for Energy Efficiency, Norway 181
14.6.1 Implementation of EU Directives on Energy Efficiency 181
14.6.2 Automobile Fuel Economy 181
14.6.3 Incentives for Low-Energy Housing 181

15 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Poland 183
15.1 Renewable Energy, Poland, Overview 183
15.2 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Poland, Major Policies and Incentives 183
15.2.1 Poland Renewable Energy, Targets 185
15.2.1.1 Targets 185
15.2.2 Energy Law Act 185
15.2.3 Polish Energy Policy Until 2030 185
15.2.4 Green Investment Scheme (GIS) 186
15.2.5 Red Certificate System 187
15.2.6 Quota Obligation/Green Certificates 187
15.2.7 Exemption from Consumption Tax 189
15.2.8 The National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 189
15.2.9 National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management 189
15.2.10 EU Structural and Cohesion Funds 190
15.2.11 The Renewable Energy Sources (RES) Act – Proposed 191
15.3 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Solar Power, Poland 192
15.4 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Wind Power, Poland 192
15.4.1 Financing of Wind Energy Projects 193
15.5 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Hydropower, Poland 193
15.6 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Bioenergy, Poland 193
15.6.1 Quota System/Green Certificates 193
15.6.2 The Long-Term Project for the Promotion of Biofuels or Other Renewable Fuels (2008–2014) 193
15.6.3 National Biofuels Goal 194
15.6.4 Directions of Development for Agricultural Biogas Plants in Poland Between 2010-2020 195
15.7 Policy Support for Energy Efficiency, Poland 195
15.7.1 Energy Efficiency Act 195
15.7.2 Poland Sustainable Energy Financing Facility 195
15.7.3 Energy Efficient Housing Subsidy Scheme, 2013 196

16 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Sweden 197
16.1 Renewable Energy, Sweden, Overview 197
16.2 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Sweden, Major Policies and Incentives 197
16.2.1 Sweden Renewable Energy, Targets 199
16.2.1.1 Targets 199
16.2.2 Energy Policy Program 199
16.2.3 Sustainable Energy and Climate Policy 199
16.2.3.1 Heating 199
16.2.3.2 Transport System 199
16.2.3.3 Electricity 199
16.2.3.4 Renewable Energy 200
16.2.4 Green Certificate Scheme 200
16.2.4.1 Quota Obligation 200
16.2.4.2 Restriction on Entitlement of Certificates 201
16.2.5 Norway-Sweden Green Certificate Scheme 202
16.2.6 Energy Tax and Carbon Tax 202
16.3 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Solar Power, Sweden 202
16.3.1 Solar Aid 202
16.3.2 Support for Solar Heating Investments 203
16.4 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Wind Power, Sweden 203
16.4.1 Support for Technical Development 204
16.4.2 Energy Tax Reduction 204
16.4.3 Reduced Real Estate Tax 204
16.4.4 Vindforsk research program 205
16.4.5 Vindval Capacity Building Program 206
16.5 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Hydropower, Sweden 206
16.5.1 Hydropower Quota System 206
16.6 Financial Incentives and Policy Support for Bioenergy, Sweden 207
16.6.1 Vehicle Taxation 207
16.6.2 Vehicle Ethanol Conversion Regulation 207
16.6.3 Fossil Fuel Blending 207
16.6.4 Electricity Certificates Scheme 207
16.7 Policy Support for Energy Efficiency, Sweden 207
16.7.1 Sustainable Municipalities Program 207
16.7.2 Program for Improving Energy Efficiency in Energy-Intensive Industries 208
16.7.3 Government Subsidies for Local Energy Efficiency Measures 208
16.7.4 Energy Efficiency Measures for Government Authorities 209
16.7.5 Building Energy Performance Certificates 209

17 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Turkey 211
17.1 Renewable Energy, Turkey, Overview 211
17.2 Renewable Energy Policy Framework, Turkey, Major Policies and Incentives 211
17.2.1.1 Targets 213
17.2.2 Use of Renewable Energy Resources for the Generation of Electrical Energy (Law No. 5346) 213
17.2.3 Law on Geothermal Resources and Natural Mineral Water (the Geothermal Law) 213
17.2.4 Strategic Plan 2010–2014 214
17.2.5 Renewable Energy Law, 2010 214
17.2.5.1 Feed-in Tariff 214
17.2.6 Climate Investment Funds 216
17.3 Policy Support for Biofuels, Turkey 217
17.3.1 Domestic additives for Biofuels 217
17.4 Policy Support for Energy Efficiency, Turkey 217
17.4.1 Energy Efficiency Law, 2007 (Law No. 5627) 217
17.4.2 Support Scheme for Energy Efficiency in Industry 218
17.4.3 Improving Energy Efficiency in Building Sector 218
17.4.4 Improving Energy Efficiency in All Sectors 218

18 Appendix 220
18.1 Market Definitions 220
18.1.1 Power 220
18.1.2 Installed Capacity 220
18.1.3 Electricity Generation 220
18.1.4 Thermal Power Plant 220
18.1.5 Nuclear Power 220
18.1.6 Renewable Energy Resources 220
18.2 Exchange Rates and Unit Conversions 220
18.3 Abbreviations 221
18.4 Bibliography 224
18.5 Coverage 226
18.6 Methodology 226
18.6.1 Secondary Research 226
18.6.2 Primary Research 227
18.7 Contact Us 227
18.8 Disclaimer 227

List of Tables

List of Figures

 

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