ASTM A370 - 11a Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products


Source: ASTM International

Ductile vs. Brittle Behavior—Body-centered-cubic or ferritic alloys exhibit a significant transition in behavior when impact tested over a range of temperatures. At temperatures above transition, impact specimens fracture by a ductile (usually microvoid coalescence) mechanism, absorbing relatively large amounts of energy. At lower temperatures, they fracture in a brittle (usually cleavage) manner absorbing appreciably less energy. Within the transition range, the fracture will generally be a mixture of areas of ductile fracture and brittle fracture.

The temperature range of the transition from one type of behavior to the other varies according to the material being tested. This transition behavior may be defined in various ways for specification purposes.

The specification may require a minimum test result for absorbed energy, fracture appearance, lateral expansion, or a combination thereof, at a specified test temperature.

The specification may require the determination of the transition temperature at which either the absorbed energy or fracture appearance attains a specified level when testing is performed over a range of temperatures. Alternatively the specification may require the determination of the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATTn) as the temperature at which the required minimum percentage of shear fracture (n) is obtained.

Further information on the significance of impact testing appears in Annex A5.

1. Scope

1.1 These test methods cover procedures and definitions for the mechanical testing of steels, stainless steels, and related alloys. The various mechanical tests herein described are used to determine properties required in the product specifications. Variations in testing methods are to be avoided, and standard methods of testing are to be followed to obtain reproducible and comparable results. In those cases in which the testing requirements for certain products are unique or at variance with these general procedures, the product specification testing requirements shall control.

2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately)

ISO Standard
ISO/IEC17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories

ASME Document

ASTM Standards
A623 Specification for Tin Mill Products, General Requirements
A623M Specification for Tin Mill Products, General Requirements [Metric]
A703/A703M Specification for Steel Castings, General Requirements, for Pressure-Containing Parts
A781/A781M Specification for Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements, for General Industrial Use
A833 Practice for Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materials by Comparison Hardness Testers
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E8/E8M Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
E10 Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials
E18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials
E23 Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
E110 Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materials by Portable Hardness Testers
E190 Test Method for Guided Bend Test for Ductility of Welds
E290 Test Methods for Bend Testing of Material for Ductility

Index Terms

bend test; Brinell hardness; Charpy impact test; elongation; FATT (Fracture Appearance Transition Temperature); hardness test; portable hardness; reduction of area; Rockwell hardness; tensile strength; tension test; yield strength; Steel wire; Temperature tests--metals/alloys; Tensile properties/testing--steel; Tin mill products; Yield strength and yield point; Bend testing--metallic materials; Brinell hardness; Charpy impact test; Elongation--metallic materials; Forgings; Fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT); Generator materials; Hardness (indentation)--metallic materials; Impact resistance; Impact testing--Charpy; Mechanical analysis/testing; Pressure vessel steel; Railroad steel materials; Rockwell hardness; Seven-wire strand (tendon); Shipbuilding steel materials--specifications; Steel; Steel bars; Steel bolting materials; Steel chain; Steel pipe; Steel sheet; Steel sheet/strip; Steel sheet/strip/plate; Steel tube; Steel valves;

ICS Code

ICS Number Code 77.040.10 (Mechanical testing of metals); 77.140.01 (Iron and steel products in general)

DOI: 10.1520/A0370-11A

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