ASTM C42 / C42M - 11 standard test method for obtaining and testing drilled cores and sawed beams of concrete


Source: ASTM International

This test method provides standardized procedures for obtaining and testing specimens to determine the compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strength of in-place concrete.

Generally, test specimens are obtained when doubt exists about the in-place concrete quality due either to low strength test results during construction or signs of distress in the structure. Another use of this method is to provide strength information on older structures.

Concrete strength is affected by the location of the concrete in a structural element, with the concrete at the bottom tending to be stronger than the concrete at the top. Core strength is also affected by core orientation relative to the horizontal plane of the concrete as placed, with strength tending to be lower when measured parallel to the horizontal plane. These factors shall be considered in planning the locations for obtaining concrete samples and in comparing strength test results.

The strength of concrete measured by tests of cores is affected by the amount and distribution of moisture in the specimen at the time of test. There is no standard procedure to condition a specimen that will ensure that, at the time of test, it will be in the identical moisture condition as concrete in the structure. The moisture conditioning procedures in this test method are intended to provide reproducible moisture conditions that minimize within-laboratory and between-laboratory variations and to reduce the effects of moisture introduced during specimen preparation.

There is no universal relationship between the compressive strength of a core and the corresponding compressive strength of standard-cured molded cylinders. The relationship is affected by many factors such as the strength level of the concrete, the in-place temperature and moisture history, and the strength gain characteristics of the concrete. Historically, it has been assumed that core strengths are generally 85 % of the corresponding standard-cured cylinder strengths, but this is not applicable to all situations. The acceptance criteria for core strength are to be established by the specifier of the tests. ACI 318 provides core strength acceptance criteria for new construction.

The apparent compressive strength of concrete as measured by a core is affected by the length-diameter ratio (L/D) of the core as tested and this must be considered in preparing core specimens and evaluating test results.

1. Scope

1.1 This test method covers obtaining, preparing, and testing cores drilled from concrete for length or compressive strength or splitting tensile strength determinations.

Note 1—Appendix X1 provides recommendations for obtaining and testing sawed beams for flexural performance.

1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

1.3 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately)

ASTM Standards
C39/C39M Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
C78 Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading)
C174/C174M Test Method for Measuring Thickness of Concrete Elements Using Drilled Concrete Cores
C496/C496M Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
C617 Practice for Capping Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
C642 Test Method for Density, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete
C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials
C823 Practice for Examination and Sampling of Hardened Concrete in Constructions
C1231/C1231M Practice for Use of Unbonded Caps in Determination of Compressive Strength of Hardened Concrete Cylinders

ACI Standards
318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete

Index Terms

compressive strength; concrete coring; concrete sawing; concrete strength; flexural strength; splitting tensile strength: Sawed beams (concrete); Splitting tensile strength; Tensile properties/testing--concrete; Change in length; Compression testing--cement/concrete; Concrete cores; Concrete test specimens; Drilled concrete cores; Flexural testing--concrete;

ICS Code

ICS Number Code 91.100.30 (Concrete and concrete products)

DOI: 10.1520/C0042_C0042M-11

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