ASTM D4485 - 11c Standard Specification for Performance of Active API Service Category Engine Oils

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Source: ASTM International

This specification covers engine oils for light-duty and heavy-duty internal combustion engines used under a variety of operating conditions in automobiles, trucks, vans, buses, and off-highway farm, industrial, and construction equipment. Automotive engine oils are classified in three general arrangements: S, C, and Energy Conserving. These arrangements are further divided into categories with performance measured as follows: SH, SJ, SL, SM, CF-4, CF, CF-2, CG-4, CH-4, CI-4, CJ-4, Energy Conserving associated with SJ, and Energy Conserving associated with SL. Different bench and chemical tests shall be performed to help evaluate some aspects of engine oil performance.

This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.

1. Scope

1.1 This specification covers engine oils for light-duty and heavy-duty internal combustion engines used under a variety of operating conditions in automobiles, trucks, vans, buses, and off-highway farm, industrial, and construction equipment.

1.2 This specification is not intended to cover engine oil applications such as outboard motors, snowmobiles, lawn mowers, motorcycles, railroad locomotives, or oceangoing vessels.

1.3 This specification is based on engine test results that generally have been correlated with results obtained on reference oils in actual service engines operating with gasoline or diesel fuel. As it pertains to the API SL engine oil category, it is based on engine test results that generally have been correlated with results obtained on reference oils run in gasoline engine Sequence Tests that defined engine oil categories prior to 2000. It should be recognized that not all aspects of engine oil performance are evaluated by the engine tests in this specification. In addition, when assessing oil performance, it is desirable that the oil be evaluated under actual operating conditions.

1.4 This specification includes bench and chemical tests that help evaluate some aspects of engine oil performance not covered by the engine tests in this specification.

1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.5.1 Exceptions—The roller follower shaft wear in Test Method D5966 is in mils. Some of the appendixes are verbatim from other sources, and non-SI units are included.

2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately)

ASTM Standards
D92 Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup Tester
D93 Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester
D130 Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test
D412 Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers--Tension
D471 Test Method for Rubber Property--Effect of Liquids
D874 Test Method for Sulfated Ash from Lubricating Oils and Additives
D892 Test Method for Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils
D2240 Test Method for Rubber Property--Durometer Hardness
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D2887 Test Method for Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography
D3244 Practice for Utilization of Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
D4171 Specification for Fuel System Icing Inhibitors
D4683 Test Method for Measuring Viscosity of New and Used Engine Oils at High Shear Rate and High Temperature by Tapered Bearing Simulator Viscometer at 150 C
D4684 Test Method for Determination of Yield Stress and Apparent Viscosity of Engine Oils at Low Temperature
D4951 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements in Lubricating Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry
D5119 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the CRC L-38 Spark-Ignition Engine
D5133 Test Method for Low Temperature, Low Shear Rate, Viscosity/Temperature Dependence of Lubricating Oils Using a Temperature-Scanning Technique
D5185 Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements, Wear Metals, and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils and Determination of Selected Elements in Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
D5293 Test Method for Apparent Viscosity of Engine Oils and Base Stocks Between -5 and -35C Using Cold-Cranking Simulator
D5302 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Inhibition of Deposit Formation and Wear in a Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine Fueled with Gasoline and Operated Under Low-Temperature, Light-Duty Conditions
D5480 Test Method for Engine Oil Volatility by Gas Chromatography
D5481 Test Method for Measuring Apparent Viscosity at High-Temperature and High-Shear Rate by Multicell Capillary Viscometer
D5533 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the Sequence IIIE, Spark-Ignition Engine
D5800 Test Method for Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Oils by the Noack Method
D5844 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Inhibition of Rusting (Sequence IID)
D5966 Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oils for Roller Follower Wear in Light-Duty Diesel Engine
D5967 Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in T-8 Diesel Engine
D6082 Test Method for High Temperature Foaming Characteristics of Lubricating Oils
D6202 Test Method for Automotive Engine Oils on the Fuel Economy of Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks in the Sequence VIA Spark Ignition Engine
D6278 Test Method for Shear Stability of Polymer Containing Fluids Using a European Diesel Injector Apparatus
D6335 Test Method for Determination of High Temperature Deposits by Thermo-Oxidation Engine Oil Simulation Test
D6417 Test Method for Estimation of Engine Oil Volatility by Capillary Gas Chromatography
D6483 Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in T-9 Diesel Engine
D6557 Test Method for Evaluation of Rust Preventive Characteristics of Automotive Engine Oils
D6593 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Inhibition of Deposit Formation in a Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine Fueled with Gasoline and Operated Under Low-Temperature, Light-Duty Conditions
D6594 Test Method for Evaluation of Corrosiveness of Diesel Engine Oil at 135C
D6681 Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oils in a High Speed, Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine--Caterpillar 1P Test Procedure
D6709 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the Sequence VIII Spark-Ignition Engine (CLR Oil Test Engine)
D6750 Test Methods for Evaluation of Engine Oils in a High-Speed, Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine--1K Procedure (0.4 % Fuel Sulfur) and 1N Procedure (0.04 % Fuel Sulfur)
D6794 Test Method for Measuring the Effect on Filterability of Engine Oils After Treatment with Various Amounts of Water and a Long (6-h) Heating Time
D6795 Test Method for Measuring the Effect on Filterability of Engine Oils After Treatment with Water and Dry Ice and a Short (30-min) Heating Time
D6837 Test Method for Measurement of Effects of Automotive Engine Oils on Fuel Economy of Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks in Sequence VIB Spark Ignition Engine
D6838 Test Method for Cummins M11 High Soot Test
D6891 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the Sequence IVA Spark-Ignition Engine
D6894 Test Method for Evaluation of Aeration Resistance of Engine Oils in Direct-Injected Turbocharged Automotive Diesel Engine
D6896 Test Method for Determination of Yield Stress and Apparent Viscosity of Used Engine Oils at Low Temperature
D6922 Test Method for Determination of Homogeneity and Miscibility in Automotive Engine Oils
D6923 Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oils in a High Speed, Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine--Caterpillar 1R Test Procedure
D6975 Test Method for Cummins M11 EGR Test
D6984 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the Sequence IIIF, Spark-Ignition Engine
D6987/D6987M Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in T-10 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Diesel Engine
D7097 Test Method for Determination of Moderately High Temperature Piston Deposits by Thermo-Oxidation Engine Oil Simulation Test--TEOST MHT
D7109 Test Method for Shear Stability of Polymer Containing Fluids Using a European Diesel Injector Apparatus at 30 and 90 Cycles
D7156 Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in the T-11 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Diesel Engine
D7216 Test Method for Determining Automotive Engine Oil Compatibility with Typical Seal Elastomers
D7320 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the Sequence IIIG, Spark-Ignition Engine
D7422 Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in T-12 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Diesel Engine
D7468 Test Method for Cummins ISM Test
D7484 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Valve-Train Wear Performance in Cummins ISB Medium-Duty Diesel Engine
D7528 Test Method for Bench Oxidation of Engine Oils by ROBO Apparatus
D7549 Test Method for Evaluation of Heavy-Duty Engine Oils under High Output Conditions--Caterpillar C13 Test Procedure
D7563 Test Method for Evaluation of the Ability of Engine Oil to Emulsify Water and Simulated Ed85 Fuel
D7589 Test Method for Measurement of Effects of Automotive Engine Oils on Fuel Economy of Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Trucks in Sequence VID Spark Ignition Engine
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
E178 Practice for Dealing With Outlying Observations

Society of Automotive Engineers Standards
SAEJ2643 Standard Reference Elastomers (SRE) for Characterizing the Effects on Vulcanized Rubber

American Petroleum Institute Publication
API1509 Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System (EOLCS)

Government Standard
DODCIDA-A-52039A(SAE

American Chemical Council Code
ACC Petroleum Additives Product Approval Code of Practice

Index Terms

automotive; engine oil; engine oil categories; engine oil test methods; heavy-duty engine; internal combustion engine; light duty engine ; Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA); Construction equipment engines; Crankcase oils; Farm engines; Fuel oils--specifications; Heavy-duty engines; Industrial petroleum products; Internal combustion engines; Lawn mowers; Light duty engine service--specifications; Lubricants (fluid)--specifications; Lubricating oils--specifications; Ocean-going vessels; Off-highway equipment; Oils; Outboard motors; Performance--petroleum products/applications; Petroleum products--specifications; Railroad locomotive engines; Snowmobiles; Trucks; Vans; Marine environments; API (American Petroleum Institute); Automotive engine fuels/oils--specifications; Buses; Motorcycles; 1M-PC multiple test programs; MTAC (multiple test acceptance criteria); Multiple test programs

ICS Code

ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)

DOI: 10.1520/D4485-11C

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