ASTM D4595 - 11 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Geotextiles by the Wide-Width Strip Method
The determination of the wide-width strip force − elongation properties of geotextiles provides design parameters for reinforcement type applications, for example design of reinforced embankments over soft subgrades, reinforced soil retaining walls, and reinforcement of slopes. When strength is not necessarily a design consideration, an alternative test method may be used for acceptance testing. Test Method D 4595 for the determination of the wide-width strip tensile properties of geotextiles may be used for the acceptance testing of commercial shipments of geotextiles but caution is advised since information about between-laboratory precision is incomplete (Note 7). Comparative tests as directed in 5.1.1 may be advisable.
In cases of a dispute arising from differences in reported test results when using Test Method D 4595 for acceptance testing of commercial shipments, the purchaser and the supplier should conduct comparative tests to determine if there is a statistical bias between their laboratories. Competent statistical assistance is recommended for the investigation of bias. As a minimum, the two parties should take a group of test specimens which are as homogeneous as possible and which are from a lot of material of the type in question. The test specimens should then be randomly assigned in equal numbers to each laboratory for testing. The average results from the two laboratories should be compared using Student's t-test for unpaired data and an acceptable probability level chosen by the two parties before the testing began. If a bias is found, either its cause must be found and corrected or the purchaser and the supplier must agree to interpret future test results in the light of the known bias.
Most geotextiles can be tested by this test method. Some modification of clamping techniques may be necessary for a given geotextile depending upon its structure. Special clamping adaptions may be necessary with strong geotextiles or geotextiles made from glass fibers to prevent them from slipping in the clamps or being damaged as a result of being gripped in the clamps. Specimen clamping may be modified as required at the discretion of the individual laboratory providing a representative tensile strength is obtained. In any event, the procedure described in Section 10 of this test method for obtaining wide-width strip tensile strength must be maintained.
This test method is applicable for testing geotextiles either dry or wet. It is used with a constant rate of extension type tension apparatus.
The use of tensile strength test methods that restrict the clamped width dimension to 50 mm (2 in.) or less, such as the ravel, cut strip, and grab test procedures, have been found less suitable than this test method for determining design strength parameters for some geotextiles. This is particularly the case for nonwoven geotextiles. The wide-width strip technique has been explored by the industry and is recommended in these cases for geotextile applications.
This test method may not be suited for some woven fabrics used in geotextile applications that exhibit strengths approximately 100 kN/m or 600 lbf/in. due to clamping and equipment limitations. In those cases, 100-mm (4-in.) width specimens may be substituted for 200-mm (8-in.) width specimens. On those fabrics, the contraction effect cited in 1.4 is minimal and, consequently, the standard comparison can continue to be made.
1.1 This test method covers the measurement of tensile properties of geotextiles using a wide-width strip specimen tensile method. This test method is applicable to most geotextiles that include woven fabrics, nonwoven fabrics, layered fabrics, knit fabrics, and felts that are used for geotextile application.
1.2 This test method covers the measurement of tensile strength and elongation of geotextiles and includes directions for the calculation of initial modulus, offset modulus, secant modulus, and breaking toughness.
1.3 Procedures for measuring the tensile properties of both conditioned and wet geotextiles by the wide-width strip method are included.
1.4 The basic distinction between this test method and other methods for measuring strip tensile properties is the width of the specimen. This width, by contrast, is greater than the length of the specimen. Some fabrics used in geotextile applications have a tendency to contract (neck down) under a force in the gage length area. The greater width of the specimen specified in this test method minimizes the contraction effect of those fabrics and provides a closer relationship to expected geotextile behavior in the field and a standard comparison.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately)
D76 Specification for Tensile Testing Machines for Textiles
D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles
D579 Specification for Greige Woven Glass Fabrics
D1776 Practice for Conditioning and Testing Textiles
D2905 Practice for Statements on Number of Specimens for Textiles
D4439 Terminology for Geosynthetics
Breaking strength/tenacity; Elongation--geotextiles; Embankments; Felt; Geosynthetics; Knitted textile fabrics; Loading tests--geosynthetics; Nonwoven geotextile fabrics; Reinforced geomembranes; Secant modulus; Slope; Tensile properties/testing--geosynthetics; Toughness; Wide width method; Woven geotextile fabrics;
ICS Number Code 59.080.70 (Geotextiles)
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