ASTM International

ASTM D5704 - 11 standard test method for evaluation of the thermal and oxidative stability of lubricating oils used for manual transmissions and final drive axles


Source: ASTM International

This test method measures the tendency of automotive manual transmission and final drive lubricants to deteriorate under high-temperature conditions, resulting in thick oil, sludge, carbon and varnish deposits, and the formation of corrosive products. This deterioration can lead to serious equipment performance problems, including, in particular, seal failures due to deposit formation at the shaft-seal interface. This test method is used to screen lubricants for problematic additives and base oils with regard to these tendencies.

This test method is used or referred to in the following documents:

American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication 1560-Lubricant Service Designations for Automotive Manual Transmissions, Manual Transaxles, and Axles,

STP-512A–Laboratory Performance Tests for Automotive Gear Lubricants Intended for API GL-5 Service,

SAE J308-Information Report on Axle and Manual Transmission Lubricants, and

U.S. Military Specification MIL-L-2105D.

1. Scope

1.1 This test method is commonly referred to as the L-60-1 test. It covers the oil-thickening, insolubles-formation, and deposit-formation characteristics of automotive manual transmission and final drive axle lubricating oils when subjected to high-temperature oxidizing conditions.

1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.2.1 Exceptions—The values stated in SI units for catalyst mass loss, oil mass and volume, alternator output, and air flow are to be regarded as standard.

1.2.2 SI units are provided for all parameters except where there is no direct equivalent such as the units for screw threads, or where there is a sole source supply equipment specification.

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific warning information is given in Sections 7 and 8 and Annex A3.

2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately)

ASTM Standards
B224 Classification of Coppers
D235 Specification for Mineral Spirits (Petroleum Spirits) (Hydrocarbon Dry Cleaning Solvent)
D445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
D664 Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration
D893 Test Method for Insolubles in Used Lubricating Oils
D6984 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the Sequence IIIF, Spark-Ignition Engine
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
E527 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys in the Unified Numbering System (UNS)

ANSI Standard
ANSI/ISA-S7.3 Quality Standard for Instrument Air

Military Specification
MIL-L-2105D Lubricating Oil, Gear, Multipurpose

Index Terms

carbon and varnish deposits; final drive axle; gear cleanliness; gears; insoluble; L-60; lubricants; manual transmission; oil thickening; seal failure; sludge; thermal oxidation; Carbon deposits; Final drive axle; Gear cleanliness; Insoluble matter content--petroleum products; L-60 test; Lubricants; Lubricating oils; Manual transmission lubricants; Oil thickening; Oxidative stability; Seal failure; Sludge; Thermal oxidation stability; Varnish deposits/deposition;

ICS Code

ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)

DOI: 10.1520/D5704-11

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