ASTM F1541 - 02(2011) standard specification and test methods for external skeletal fixation devices

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Source: ASTM International

A1.4.1 The purpose of this classification is to establish a consistent terminology system by means of which these ESFD configurations can be classified. It is anticipated that a companion testing standard using this classification system will subsequently be developed.

1. Scope

1.1 This specification provides a characterization of the design and mechanical function of external skeletal fixation devices (ESFDs), test methods for characterization of ESFD mechanical properties, and identifies needs for further development of test methods and performance criteria. The ultimate goal is to develop a specification, which defines performance criteria and methods for measurement of performance-related mechanical characteristics of ESFDs and their fixation to bone. It is not the intention of this specification to define levels of performance or case-specific clinical performance of the devices, as insufficient knowledge is available to predict the consequences of the use of any of these devices in individual patients for specific activities of daily living. Furthermore, it is not the intention of this specification to describe or specify specific designs for ESFDs.

1.2 This specification describes ESFDs for surgical fixation of the skeletal system. It provides basic ESFD geometrical definitions, dimensions, classification, and terminology; material specifications; performance definitions; test methods; and characteristics determined to be important to the in-vivo performance of the device.

1.3 This specification includes a terminology and classification annex and five standard test method annexes as follows:

1.3.1 Classification of External Fixators—Annex A1.

1.3.2 Test Method for External Skeletal Fixator Connectors—Annex A2.

1.3.3 Test Method for Determining In-Plane Compressive Properties of Circular Ring or Ring Segment Bridge Elements—Annex A3.

1.3.4 Test Method for External Skeletal Fixator Joints—Annex A4.

1.3.5 Test Method for External Skeletal Fixator Pin Anchorage Elements—Annex A5.

1.3.6 Test Method for External Skeletal Fixator Subassemblies—Annex A6.

1.3.7 Test Method for External Skeletal Fixator/Constructs Subassemblies—Annex A7.

1.4 A rationale is given in Appendix X1.

1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.6 The following safety hazards caveat pertains only to the test method portions (Annex A2-Annex A6):

1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

A1.1.1 This classification covers the definitions of basic terms and considerations for external skeletal fixation devices (ESFDs) and the mechanical analyses thereof.

A1.1.2 It is not the intent of this classification to define levels of acceptable performance or to make recommendations concerning the appropriate or preferred clinical usage of these devices.

A1.1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

A2.1.1 This test method covers the procedures for determining the stiffness and strength of connecting elements (clamps) of external skeletal fixators under axial loads and bending moments. Depending on the design of the connector and its use in the overall construct, the connector needs to transmit one or more components of loading (tension, compression, torsion, or bending, or a combination thereof) between the elements it grips (anchorage elements or bridge elements), without itself undergoing either permanent deformation or excessive elastic deformation.

A2.1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

A3.1.1 This test method covers the test procedure for determining the in-plane compressive properties of circular or ring segment bridge elements of external skeletal fixators.

A3.1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

A4.1.1 Depending on its design and its use in the overall construct, the joint of an external skeletal fixator needs to transmit one or more components of loading (tension, compression, torsion, or bending, or a combination thereof) between the elements it grips (anchorage elements or bridge elements), without either the connector itself or its gripping interface(s) undergoing either permanent deformation or excessive elastic deformation.

A4.1.2 This test method covers the procedures for determining the stiffness and strength of external skeletal fixator joints under axial loads and bending moments.

A4.1.3 This document also covers procedures for determining the range of adjustability in degrees of freedom for which the joint's configuration can be adjusted by the user and procedures for determining the joint's range of motion in degrees of freedom for which motion is permitted if the fixator is unlocked.

A4.1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

A5.1.1 This test method covers the procedure for determining the static bending strength and torsional strength of metallic pins used in external skeletal fixation systems. The described method is intended to provide a means of mechanically evaluating pins and not to define acceptable levels of performance. This test method is applicable only to pins made from materials exhibiting linearly elastic behavior. Pins are defined in Annex A1.

A5.1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

A6.1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining the stiffness and strength of external skeletal fixator subassemblies, under force loadings (axial, medial-lateral shear, anterior-posterior shear), or under moment loadings (torsion, medial-lateral bending, anterior-posterior bending), or a combination thereof.

A6.1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

A7.1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining the stiffness, strength, and repetitive loading performance characteristics of external skeletal fixator-bone constructs when subjected to force loading (axial, medial-lateral shear, anterior-posterior shear) and moment loading (torsion, medial-lateral bending, anterior-posterior bending).

A7.1.2 This test method establishes a universal fixator-bone construct's minimum configuration and set of laboratory tests for evaluating the external fixator device's (EFD) basic performance characteristics.

A7.1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately)

ASTM Standards
A938 Test Method for Torsion Testing of Wire
D790 Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
E467 Practice for Verification of Constant Amplitude Dynamic Forces in an Axial Fatigue Testing System
E1823 Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
E1942 Guide for Evaluating Data Acquisition Systems Used in Cyclic Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Testing
F67 Specification for Unalloyed Titanium, for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R50250, UNS R50400, UNS R50550, UNS R50700)
F90 Specification for Wrought Cobalt-20Chromium-15Tungsten-10Nickel Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R30605)
F136 Specification for Wrought Titanium-6Aluminum-4Vanadium ELI (Extra Low Interstitial) Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R56401)
F138 Specification for Wrought 18Chromium-14Nickel-2.5Molybdenum Stainless Steel Bar and Wire for Surgical Implants (UNS S31673)
F366 Specification for Fixation Pins and Wires
F543 Specification and Test Methods for Metallic Medical Bone Screws
F544 Reference Chart for Pictorial Cortical Bone Screw Classification
F1058 Specification for Wrought 40Cobalt-20Chromium-16Iron-15Nickel-7Molybdenum Alloy Wire and Strip for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R30003 and UNS R30008)
F1264 Specification and Test Methods for Intramedullary Fixation Devices
F1472 Specification for Wrought Titanium-6Aluminum-4Vanadium Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R56400)
F1713 Specification for Wrought Titanium-13Niobium-13Zirconium Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R58130)

Index Terms

anchorage element; bending; bridge element; connector; external skeletal fixation device; fracture fixation; joints; modularity; orthopedic medical device; osteosynthesis; ring element; subassembly (frame); terminology; torsion 23.1 bending moments; connecting elements; connectors; external fixator; orthopedic device; stiffness; strength 44.1 bending; connecting elements; external fixator; joints; orthopedic device; range of adjustability; range of motion; stiffness; strength; torsion 54.1 external fixation; four-point bending; orthopedic device; pins; rigidity; stiffness; strength; torsion 75.1 bend testing—orthopedic medical devices; fatigue testing—orthopedic medical devices; orthopedic medical devices—external fixation devices; test methods—surgical devices; Anchorage element; Bone fixation; Bridge element; Classification (standards)--medical/surgical applications; Connector; External skeletal fixators; Fixation devices/applications; Internal fixation; Joint prostheses--specifications; Modularity; Modular prostheses; Musculoskeletal system; Osteosynthesis; Physiological environment; Ring elements; Skeletal system; Staples; Subassembly (frame); Synthetic bone; Terminology--medical/surgical systems/applications; Testing methods--surgical implants;

ICS Code

ICS Number Code 11.120.20 (Wound dressings. Compresses)

DOI: 10.1520/F1541-02R11

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