Cochrane & Associates, LLC

CDC Lists Antibiotic Resistance Threats in Puerto Rico and the Rest of the United States

Source: Cochrane & Associates, LLC

Zimmetry Environmental provides testing and consulting services to identify microbial pathogens in all types of healthcare settings and other sensitive environments.

Bayamon, Puerto Rico, March 2nd, 2020 -- According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections occur in the United States each year and more than 35,000 people die as a result. In addition, nearly 223,900 people in the United States required hospital care for Clostridioides difficile (C. diff) infections and at least 12,800 people died from those infections as recently as 2017.


Last year, the CDC published an update to the agency’s first AR Threats Report from 6 years earlier. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019 (2019 AR Threats Report) includes updated national death and infection estimates and a wealth of other information.


Many of these infections occur when patients in hospitals, long-term care facilities or other healthcare settings are receiving treatment for other conditions. This is known as a healthcare-associated infection or HAI. In fact, the CDC states that on any given day, about 1 in 31 hospital patients has at least one healthcare-associated infection.


The 2019 AR Threats Report list the CDC’s top 18 antibiotic-resistant pathogens and also includes 3 on the agency’s “Watch List.” The report excludes viruses and parasites, but does include bacteria and fungi. For the report, the agency uses “antibiotic” to describe antibacterial and antifungal drugs. The categories include urgent, serious and concerning threats.  They include: 


Urgent Threats

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter

Candida auris

Clostridioides difficile

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

Drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae


Serious Threats

Drug-resistant Campylobacter

Drug-resistant Candida

ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci

Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Drug-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella

Drug-resistant Salmonella serotype Typhi

Drug-resistant Shigella

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

Drug-resistant Tuberculosis


Concerning Threats

Erythromycin-resistant group A Streptococcus

Clindamycin-resistant group B Streptococcus


Watch List

Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus

Drug-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium

Drug-resistant Bordetella pertussis


“While these superbugs can be a threat to all of us, healthcare facilities and other sensitive environments with patients that already have a weakened or suppressed immune system are particularly at risk,” said Harry Pena, President of Zimmetry Environmental. “The presence of drug-resistant pathogens, such as C. diff and MRSA, on surfaces within a facility can lead to serious and sometimes deadly infections. In Puerto Rico and across the Caribbean, Zimmetry Environmental offers testing and consulting services to identify environmental pathogens, confirm surface cleaning and disinfection procedures, and can help to pinpoint the source of an outbreak due to an environmental pathogen if one has already occurred.”   


Zimmetry Environmental has also sponsored an educational video about the 2019 AR Threats Report that can be seen at:


To learn more about Zimmetry Environmental and their microbial pathogen, indoor air quality, environmental, and compliance testing and consulting services, please visit, call (787) 995.0005 or email


About Zimmetry Environmental

Since 2002, Zimmetry Environmental has been providing environmental consulting services to building owners and managers, architects, engineers, EHS professionals and Fortune 500 companies.  The company is based in Puerto Rico and provides services across the Caribbean and Central America.  The professionals at Zimmetry offer environmental compliance, indoor air quality, asbestos, lead-based paint, Phase I ESAs and general environmental consulting services.