Setting standards for reducing concentrations of fine particles
The directive agreed today merges four directives and one Council decision into a single directive on air quality. It sets standards and target dates for reducing concentrations of fine particles, which together with coarser particles known as PM10 already subject to legislation, are among the most dangerous pollutants for human health.
Under the directive Member States are required to reduce exposure to PM2.5 in urban areas by an average of 20% by 2020 based on 2010 levels. It obliges them to bring exposure levels below 20 micrograms/m3 by 2015 in these areas. Throughout their territory Member States will need to respect the PM2.5 limit value set at 25 micrograms/m3. This value must be achieved by 2015 or, where possible, already by 2010.
Giving greater flexibility for meeting air quality standards
The new directive introduces new objectives for fine particles PM2.5 but does not change existing air quality standards. It does, however, give Member States greater flexibility in meeting some of these standards in areas where they have difficulty complying. Meeting PM10 limit values is proving challenging for 25 of the 27 EU Member States which are exceeding these limits in at least one part of their territory (see IP/07/1537).
The deadlines for complying with the PM10 standards can be postponed for three years after the directive's entry into force (mid-2011) or by a maximum period of five years for nitrogen dioxide and benzene (2010-2015) provided that the relevant EU legislation such as industrial pollution prevention and control (IPPC, see MEMO/07/441) is fully implemented, and that all appropriate abatement measures are being taken. The directive provides a list of measures that need to be considered.
The new directive on air quality (see IP/07/1895 and MEMO/07/571) is one of the key measures outlined in the 2005 Thematic Strategy on air pollution adopted by the Commission in September 2005 (IP/05/1170). It establishes ambitious, cost-effective targets for improving human health and environmental quality up to 2020.
The directive will be published in the EU's Official Journal in May 2008 alongside a Commission declaration on progress in developing and adopting further measures that address emissions from various sources.
There is already EU legislation on the exhaust emissions of light vehicles, but in December 2007 the Commission presented a legislative proposal on improving the effectiveness of EU industrial emissions legislation and another on limiting the exhaust emissions of heavy duty vehicle engines.
Internationally, the European Union is following with interest progress made by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) on reducing the maximum sulphur content allowed in marine fuels.