- Model 9100 - Cross-Stack, Infrared Carbon Monoxide (CO) Monitor



A highly accurate, cross-stack, infrared carbon monoxide (CO) monitor suitable for use in a wide range of industrial combustion efficiency applications. Developed based on AMETEK Land’s decades of experience in carbon monoxide monitoring solutions, the Model 9100 provides the direct, continuous, cross-stack CO measurement and fast-response coverage essential to efficient combustion control in boilers.

By monitoring across the entire duct, an averaged measurement of carbon monoxide can be made, which supports much better combustion control. This in turn results in improved fuel efficiency, cost savings, safety, and lower emissions.

Our advanced infrared technology uses a transmitter and receiver on either side of the duct, providing a much faster measurement than extractive techniques. The system can connect to an optional, dedicated control room unit and air purge mechanism.

Offering keypad-selectable measurement ranges between 0-10,000 ppm (depending on the duct size), the Model 9100 is designed to monitor carbon monoxide for combustion efficiency applications in the hydrocarbon processing and power generation industries.

Fast and Accurate Results
With no sample gas transfer time, the Model 9100 responds far more quickly than extractive systems, enabling much closer combustion control. In addition, the cross-stack reading is more precise than using a single sampling point, greatly increasing accuracy.

Reduced NOX Emissions
Controlling the levels of excess air optimises the combustion process. Proper combustion control is essential to save cost and minimize pollution emissions, ensuring compliance with government emission levels across the world.

Advanced Air Purge System
Many CO monitor measurements take place in dirty flue gases, which can affect the instrument’s window, leading to signal loss and high maintenance requirements. The Advanced Air Purge provides a laminar flow of purge air to keep the view clear.

The Model 9100 is AMETEK Land’s highly accurate, non-extractive solution for combustion control by monitoring carbon monoxide.

  • Direct continuous measurement of Carbon Monoxide
  • True representative measurement - reading averaged across entire duct
  • Improved combustion control and efficiency savings
  • Low running and maintenance cost
  • High reliability - robust design
  • Simple installation - advanced alignment features
  • Over 20 years of experience in carbon monoxide monitoring - 4th generation product

Incomplete combustion of carbon based fuels, including coal and oil will always result in the formation of Carbon Monoxide (CO). Increased CO concentration equates to insufficient or inefficient combustion. It is not uncommon to have varying boiler loads and fuel quality. The greater the variation the most advantage can be gained by controlling with continuous monitoring of the levels of CO.

The graph illustrates the relationship between CO, Oxygen and minimum heat loss. The Carbon Monoxide control band is load independent.

Reducing NOx using CO measurement

NOx emission levels can be optimized by controlling the levels of excess air in the combustion process through continuous CO measurement. Maintaining low levels of CO minimizes NOx emission levels. Close control of excess air levels through CO measurement is vital, as NOx level increases are non-linear.

Measurement Principle

Radiation is emitted from an infrared source inside the Transmitter unit. The beam is modulated as it passes successively through measurement and reference gas cells. The beam then crosses the measurement duct containing the CO and is received by the high sensitivity detector. The receiver unit converts the signal into an electrical current and an output signal is generated which corresponds to the CO concentration.

Advantages over a sampling system

The Model 9100 monitors across the entire duct width (not a single sample point) enabling a true, representative measurement of the carbon monoxide levels to be made. Process control demands a fast responding system like the Model 9100. Extractive analyzers are often too slow, due to the sample gas transport time, and inaccurate due to the single sampling point.

Advanced Air Purge

Many CO Monitor installations involve measurement in dirty flue gases. Dirt on the instrument’s window results in signal loss and high maintenance requirements. Land Instruments International have solved this problem by using their Advanced Air Purge. This provides a laminar flow of purge air giving full positive pressures and no voids.

Key to Schematic

  1. Infrared source
  2. IP65
  3. Gas Cell Wheel
  4. Advanced Air Purging System
  5. High Sensitivity Infrared Detector
  6. Measurement and Calibration Filters
  7. User keypad and CO measurement display
  8. Signal Strength Indicator


  • Technique: Infrared Gas Cell Correlation Technique
  • System Performance
  • Measuring Range: 0 - 10000 ppm. m, Other ranges selectable from the keypad
  • Pathlength: 0.5 to 10 m / 1.6 to 32 ft
  • Measurement Cycle: 20 Hz integrated over 2 secs. Model 9100
  • Linearity: ± 3 % of range
  • Resolution: 1 ppm
  • Response Time: Adjustable between 2 and 250 secs.
  • Calibration: Calibration audit, Zero calibration (clear stack)

Control Panel

  • Display: 2 x 16 character reflective backlit LCD with
  • Adjustable: contrast control (receiver unit)
  • signal strength indicator (transmitter unit)
  • Keypad: 9 keys for data input, diagnostics, setup and calibration


  • Temperature Range: -30 to +55 °C / -22 to 131 °F
  • Flue Gas Temperature Range: up to 370 °C / 700 °F
  • Environmental Rating: IP65


  • Safety: Conforms to EN61010
  • EMC: Conforms to EN50 081 and EN 50 082


  • Flue Gas Temperature Input: Thermocouple, Type K Chromel/Alumel input into the Transmitter unit or 4-20 mA temp. input
  • Serial Interface : Isolated RS232 or RS485 communications (Modbus) for: CO concentration, Status, Signal strength, Initiate check cycle, Diagnostic data
  • Current Loop (Analog) Outputs (2): : 0, 2, 4 -10, 20mA user configurable for track or hold
  • Relay Outputs (3): Independently configurable as System OK, Maintenance, or Alarm (High or low)
  • Relay Rating: 30 V d.c., 1 A


  • Power Supply : 85 - 132, 170 - 264 V a.c. (auto selects), 50 - 60 Hz
  • Power Consumption: 200 W

Mechanical Data

  • Mounting Flange*: ASA 3”, 150 lb flange (supplied)
  • Dimensions (H x W x D): 264 x 212 x 475 mm / 10.4 x 8.4 x 18.7 in
  • (Transmitter and Receiver): Note: ‘D’ includes purge
  • Weight:
    • 9.4 kg / 20.7 lb (Receiver unit)
    • 10.1 kg / 22.2 lb (Transmitter unit)

* Transfer Flange Available for Model 9100


  • Air Mover Assembly for Air Purge
  • Air Purge Blower Unit
  • Transfer/Adapter Flanges
  • Flue Gas Thermocouple with Current Loop Transmitter


  • Boiler Combustion Efficiency
  • Low NOx Burner Performance
  • Burner Performance Monitoring
  • Process Control
  • Precipitator Protection
  • Explosion Preventation


  • Power Utilities
  • Refineries
  • Chemical Plants
  • District Heating Plants
  • Waste Incinerators
  • Cement Plants
  • Process Industries
  • Pulp & Paper Manufacture

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