Cereals Introduction Application
The experience of Maguin-Interis in cereal treatment has been developed from the first 'wheat' units working in France in the 1980s and has been enhanced by laboratory studies on other cereals.
Maguin-Interis processes allow the treatment of manioc, wheat, corn, rye, triticale but also new cereals such as grain sorghum, the first studies of which go back to 1996.
Maguin controls all the processing stages from Grinding, supplied by Maguin-Promill, Starch Hydrolysis, Alcoholic Fermentation and Ethanol Separation using Maguin-Interis processes; and stillage (spent wash) treatment with D.D.G.S. production using dryers and granulating presses from Maguin-Promill.
The total command of 'key' equipment for the bioethanol plant enables Maguin to develop an internal synergy between the alcohol unit and the D.D.G.S. drying unit, which reduces production costs by reducing steam consumption.
Cereal grinding produces from the whole wheat a coarse flour having a narrow size distribution and containing approximately 5% of fines. This grinding is done by hammer mills.
The Liquefaction stage transforms starchy raw materials into a fermentable mash, thanks to starch hydrolysis.
Hydrolysis is carried out by an enzymatic process. The introduced enzymes break down the carbohydrate links in the starch macromolecule in order to obtain sugars easily assimilated by the yeast.
Two types of enzymes, catalysing different reactions, are used according to the liquefaction and saccharification stages.
The Liquefaction process works continuously and includes stages of dough mixing (for a cereal or flour grind) and Liquefaction.
Saccharification can be carried out upstream of Fermentation or simultaneously to the Fermentation (SSF).
Fermentation is the key to the performance of an alcohol production unit. Thanks to its expertise in fermentative biology, Maguin-Interis guarantees the best yields and residual sugars rates.
From the mash prepared during Liquefaction and Pre-Saccharification stages, the Alcoholic Fermentation leads to a fermented mash with high alcoholic content.
Fermentation can be run in SSF mode (Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation): Enzymatic Hydrolysis occurs at the same time as Fermentation. This scheme allows the maintaining of a low residual sugar content in the fermentors, favourable to the enzymatic kinetics and to yeasts development. Furthermore, the development of contaminants is limited.
Fermentation is run in continuous mode, or in discontinuous mode when temperature of cooling water is critical.
According to raw materials, a recycling of yeasts can be carried out in order to reduce Fermentation duration.
The Distillation step concerns the stripping of fermented mash, with production of vinasses (or spent wash) and the alcohol concentrated into phlegm or high degree raw alcohol.
The design concept of Maguin-Interis allows for adaptation to each type of raw material thus obtaining continuous operation without periodic cleaning.
Columns are equipped with several types of internals adapted to functions of degassing, stripping, oil separation and concentration. Resulting from constant development of its Processes, Maguin-Interis recently introduced the use of 4th generation Internals. Distillation yields attained by Maguin-Interis processes are superior to 99.5 %.
The use of schemes with multiple effects, vapour thermo-compression and coupling with the other units results in a reduction in the global steam consumption of the alcohol production units.
The use of simulation software is an integrated part of the study for processes optimisation.
Rectification covers all steps of raw alcohol treatment (phlegm) for the production of Rectified Alcohol (Industrial quality) or Rectified Extra Neutral Alcohol (REN - Superfine - ENA).
The expertise of Maguin-Interis is inherited from knowledge passed on generation to generation by 'distillers' pioneered by the famous Emile BARBET. Therefore, the quality of alcohols obtained by Rectification units has resulted in Maguin-Interis being a reference for the major alcohol producers.
In order to continuously improve its Rectification process, Maguin-Interis set up specific simulation tools allowing the selection of extraction products to be optimized, by considering for each of them the chemical and organoleptic aspects.
This development led to a complete mastery of the installations and to impurities management in the various stages of the Process: Hydroselection (or indirect purification), Rectification, Refining and Low Grade Concentration with specific purification stage. So the extraction rates are minimized, while ensuring a high quality of the neutral alcohol produced.
The proposed schemes are with multiple effects using columns under vacuum and/or with vapour recompression, leading to the best energy performances.
In 1993 Maguin-Interis conceived and patented the first French alcohol Dehydration unit using molecular sieves or zeolites.
By the in-depth study of mass transfer in solid media and a unique conception of process automation, Maguin-Interis ensures a process having very high reliability. Therefore, units can work consistently without renewal or addition of zeolites.
Intended for Bioethanol production, the dehydration process with molecular sieves also applies to dehydrated rectified alcohol production, producing an ENA alcohol quality with very low moisture content.
Maguin-Interis also owns a Dehydration Process using azeotropic distillation.
In constant search for innovative Processes, Maguin-Interis has developed in partnership a scheme for Dehydration by the Membrane Process.
Maguin-Interis processes of stillage (spent wash) treatment are suited to the various raw materials. Their design allows energy costs to be reduced and fouling to be controlled, while ensuring optimal product quality. Stillage (Spent wash) obtained from starchy raw materials is clarified before concentration by centrifuge-decanter, in order to eliminate cellulosic fibres.
Clarified stillage is recycled at the Liquefaction stage in order to minimize dilution water consumption and to reduce the evaporation necessary for concentration.
Clarified stillage is concentrated using a multiple effect scheme, or mechanical recompression or thermo-compression of vapours. These can be coupled with other upstream or downstream process units in order to save energy for he whole plant.
Working temperatures of evaporators are chosen to minimize fouling and preserve protein quality in the final syrup.
The D.D.G.S. (Distillers Dried Grains with Soluble) production unit aims to reclaim cellulosic fibres coming from the stillage clarification stage (separation / settling) and syrups obtained from the stillage concentration stage.
Both products obtained from the previous stages are treated in a Drying unit supplied by Maguin-Promill. This unit includes Mixture of incoming products, Drying and Granulation.
Mixers, of Maguin-Promill conception, are developed to ensure a perfect mixture of the wet grain, the stillage syrup and the recycled product from drying. The Maguin-Promill dryer has a 3 pass drum, working at low temperature with a short residence time, allowing the preservation of the nutritional qualities of the D.D.G.S. produced.
The dry product is then passed to the Granulation stage, which produces a product suitable for animal feed commercialization.
Recovery of vapours from the dryer also enables energy consumption optimization, due to energy coupling with the distillation unit.
Maguin-Interis units are conceived for the overall integration of energy resources and optimization of their use.
Several levels of energy production can be defined:
- Level 1: production of electricity and High Pressure steam (HP)
- Level 2: production of electricity and Low Pressure steam (LP), and process vapours
- Level 3: process units for Ethanol production, with co-products valuation and possible generation of biogas or process vapour recovered in the units.