Hurricane - Numerically Optimized Cyclone Collector
Cyclones have been mostly designed and improved by empirical means. Computerized Flow Dynamics (CFD) can be used for partial cyclone optimization but it is still incomplete for full cyclone optimization. Notably low collection efficiency results from the fact that particle agglomeration for cyclone modelling has been disregarded until present days. ACS developed a complete line of very different Hurricane cyclone families for each different need, considering how inter-particle agglomeration / clustering affects collection efficiency. From coarse particle pre-separation proportioned by compact and low pressure drop cyclones, such as the SD and DX lines, to fine particulate capture with high-end geometries such as the EX and MK, ACS provides solutions for a wide range of industrial cases, being able to reach emissions comparable to ESPs (down to less than 30mg/Nm3).
- Very high efficiencies: around 50 % of the emissions of other high efficiency cyclones
- Custom designs (single or parallel arrangement)
- Low pressure drop: < 100 mm w. g.
- Direct product discharge avoiding product degradation and cross contamination
- Break-apart construction for easy cleaning
- Very smooth surface finishing to meet pharma requirements
- Materials of construction in 316L stainless steel
- Absence of condensation with heat tracing systems
- Clean in Place (CIP) cleaning systems
- Dimensions: from lab scale to 2000 kg/h N2 or air
Particle Agglomeration in Cyclones
ACS has been investigating particle agglomeration in cyclones for several years. Understanding agglomeration in cyclones has helped ACS build more accurate models of collection efficiency estimation, capable of explaining why sub-micrometer particles are often captured with much higher efficiency than predicted by standard models. Indeed, fine particles tend to form agglomerates (clusters) with much higher collection efficiency than those of the primary particles. Agglomeration increases in the presence of wide particle size distributions, long residence times in the cyclone and high inlet particle concentrations. This knowledge has been incorporated into ACS numerical simulation tool - the PACyc (Particle Agglomeration in Cyclones, Chemical Engineering Journal 162 (2010) 861-876) algorithm. This has been crucial in improving the design of ACS technologies, which have demonstrated to achieve significant reduction in emissions when compared with other high efficiency cyclones.
Optimizing Cyclone's Efficiency
Supported by the PACyc Model, and considering several economical and operation constraints (such as size and pressure loss), with numerical optimization it is possible to generate millions of virtual prototypes within an affordable time period, and to observe the impact of each dimension ratio on the cyclone performance.
Considering this approach as the best path to obtain truly optimized cyclones, sound theories of cyclone collection and pressure loss were chosen for each application, and afterwards improved for predicting collection efficiencies for new geometries. These numerical optimization problems have resulted in many different new lines of cyclones and several patents.
Different Objectives - Different Cyclones
Indeed, different industrial cases have different needs resulting in very different cyclones, for which the optimization functions may be minimizing cost, minimizing space, among others. When high efficiency is required and particles are prone to agglomerate, which includes most of the handled dusts; recent developed Hurricane MK line of cyclones (patent pending) can be a solution to achieve emissions as low as 30mg/Nm3.
The Hurricane MK - The Agglomerator Cyclone
In 2014, a better understanding of agglomeration has allowed ACS to develop a completely new line of cyclone geometries, different from any other in the world: the Hurricane MK. It was obtained by combining stochastic numerical optimization with the PACyc model. This represents a giant leap in terms of efficiency for all ACS products, as these collectors can be used in ReCyclone configurations too, as presented ahead.
Hurricane MK cyclones, once adjusted for a particular process, maximize particle agglomeration. For PSDs that favor clustering, as biomass and coal fly ash, emissions can be as low as 30mg/Nm3 (patent pending).
- Biomass and Coal Combustion
- Steel and Ferroalloys
- Pyrolisis, Incineration and Gasification
- Air Caption and Dedusting
- Biomass Dryers
- Fuel Oil Combustion
- Clinker Cooler and Pre-Heater Dedusting
- Calcination Processes
- High Temperature Separation Processes for Energy Recovery
- Pharmaceutical Ingredients
- Food Ingredients
- Mineral Processing
- Milling and Drying processes