- Model T-Chain - Temperature String for Water Quality Monitoring And Lake Management Device

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The T-Chain is used as a water quality monitoring and lake management device that collects water column temperature, dissolved oxygen, PAR, pressure, chlorophyll a, and conductivity measurements. T-Chains are currently being used to monitor lake and reservoir thermocline and stratification, detect dissolved oxyen fluctuations, observe internal waves, collect data under ice, discover plumes, observe upwelling and eddies, record lake turnover and more. The T-Chain is also used in marine environments

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The T-Chain is a temperature string designed to collect temperature, dissolved oxygen and pressure measurements as rapidly as once per second along a customer specified node location cable. This temperature string (T-Chain) is unique due to its very high temperature accuracy and rapid response to temperature variations. It often finds application in connection with numerical model validations as well as routine monitoring.

The temperature string (T-Chain) consists of a single polyurethane sheathed cable with a Kevlar core. This cable carries digital-format data from the various sensors. Temperature sensors are permanently molded onto the cable but dissolved oxygen and pressure sensors are attached via underwater connectors. The number and type of sensors, length of cable, and other parameters are defined by the customer subject to the temperature string design rules. Each chain is custom assembled depending upon the customer's specific requirements.

The T-Chain can be supplied with either a PME data logger, Campbell data logger, or with an RS 232/ 485 connection.

Temperature String Can be Used To

  • Monitor water column temperature
  • Monitor dissolved oxygen content
  • Detect Plumes (by towing the T-Chain)
  • Collect data on Fall and Spring turnover
  • Detect Internal Waves
  • Collect data under ice (Winter mixing)
  • Look at Up welling and Eddies
  • Validate models and look at Lake Number
  • Look at Vertical Eddy Diffusivity

Temperature String Features

  • Temperature Monitoring
  • Dissolved Oxygen Monitoring
  • Pressure Transducer
  • Provides real-time data
  • Compatible with PME logger and others.
  • For use in oceans and freshwater
  • Durable and easy to maintain

  • Monitor water column temperature
  • Monitor dissolved oxygen content
  • Detect Plumes and internal waves
  • Data on Fall and Spring turnover
  • Look at Upwelling and Eddies
  • Validate models and Lake Number
  • Look at Vertical Eddy Diffusivity

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Sensor Specifications

  • Temperature Accuracy: +/- 0.010° C
  • Thermal Range: 0 - 36° C
  • Dissolved Oxygen: Optical, 8μM or 5%
  • PAR: LI-192SA
  • Pressure Transducer: 5, 10, 20 bar

T-Chain Specifications

  • Max. Data Rate: 1 scan of all nodes/ sec.
  • Sensor Time Constant: better than 2 seconds
  • Resolution: 16 bit, approx. 0.005° C
  • Max. span between nodes: 30m
  • Min. span between nodes: 25cm
  • Maximum depth of a node: 165m

Logger
PME’s logger was specifically designed to interact with the T-Chain. It’s capacity and endurance depend upon the number of nodes on the chain, the sampling interval, and the capacity of the compact flash card. With 128 Meg flash and sampling 41 nodes per minute, the logger capacity is approximately 2 years.

The logger is a Persistor CF2 single board computer and PME provides a simple logging program. It is possible to configure the T-Chain for other loggers.

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