Thermal Treatment System
- Most of our systems do not require any pre-processing of feedstock;
- Produce high-quality carbon and oil at a lower cost than other recycling systems;
- Designed to be virtually energy self-sufficient;
- Many of the systems are modular and capable of being truck-mounted and transported directly to the waste resources;
- Many of the systems can be delivered and installed within six months;
- Designed to handle almost any commonly generated waste stream, whether liquid, solid, mixed or unmixed (including whole tires, all types of plastics, e-waste, shredder residues, sewage sludge, animal wastes, biomass, ligneous and infectious biohazard medical waste).
Using Pyrolysis & Gasification to Produce Refined Fuels, Recovered Carbon Blacks & Nano Carbon Filler Compounds
Klean's advanced systems are redefining the science of thermal treatment technologies. Our primary applications involve the use of both pyrolysis and gasification technologies. Pyrolysis is a thermal process where carbon-based substances are decomposed, in the absence of oxygen, into energy and inert end-products without burning or combusting them.
- Process is used primarily in recycling and waste management applications
- Operates at low temperatures, typically under 500˚C producing high-value reusable carbon solids, liquid fuels, oils and combustible gases comprised primarily of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane
As a related process that introduces a control amount of oxygen into the decomposition reaction to increase the thermal properties of the gases and to calibrate the characteristics of energy output.
- Process is used primarily in energy-generating applications to convert carbon-based waste streams into high-value power-generating syngas
- Operates at slightly higher controlled temperatures of approximately 1100 ˚C producing synthetic gases used to generate heat to drive electric turbines and/or produce steam
Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of waste in an oxygen-free environment, or in an environment in which the oxygen content is too low for combustion or gasification to take place. Pyrolysis liquefaction is a non-combustion heat treatment that chemically decomposes waste material by applying heat (directly or indirectly) to the waste material in an oxygen-free environment.
Pyrolysis is an endothermic reaction (unlike gasification and combustion, which are usually exothermic reactions) and requires an input of energy that is typically applied indirectly, through the walls of the reactor in which the waste material is placed for treatment.
Pyrolysis typically occurs under pressure and at operating temperatures above 430 °C (800 °F). The process generally produces char, oil and syn-gas, the ratios of each depending on the feedstock and the specific pyrolysis conditions (temperature, residence time, heating rate, pressure and degree of mixing) that are used.
There are a number of different kinds of liquefaction processes, all of which differ significantly with respect to residence time (for the waste material), heating rate, temperature and by-products. These range from carbonization, which can take up to 24 hours and produces coal at low temperatures, to flash pyrolysis, which takes less than a second and produces syn-gas at extremely high temperatures. A summary of the process conditions and by-products of the different pyrolysis processes is set out in the table below.
Klean Industries offers several types of pyrolysis liquefaction systems, including the rotary kiln, rotary hearth unit, and the fluidized bed; some systems provide direct heat, others indirect, and both continuous feed and batch feed variations are available. Both the pyrolysis and the gasification processes turn waste into energy-rich fuels by heating the waste under controlled conditions. As opposed to incineration, which fully converts the input waste into energy and ash, these processes are designed to limit the conversion process so that the products of the waste input can be controlled, such that the waste material is transformed into valuable by-products that can be directly re-used in a variety of industries or processed further for more specific industrial applications.
Gasification is a process that uses heat, pressure, and steam to convert materials directly into gas. It has been in use for many years, and involves breaking down complex organic molecules and carbon, in both liquid and solid state, into simple gases.
Gasification is a thermal process but it is designed to produce a syn-gas as the main product, rather than the flue gas produced by a similar thermal process, combustion (i.e. incineration). The syn-gas consists largely of carbon dioxide and H2 and contains a large percentage of the inherent chemical energy of the input fuel.
Rather than treating waste in an oxygen-free environment, as is the case when waste is pyrolysed, gasification occurs in the presence of a controlled amount of air that is sufficient to allow only partial combustion of a small amount of the fuel input. The thermodynamics of the process are therefore very different from pyrolysis. Oxygen in the air aids the breakdown of the heavy organic compounds in the waste, thereby optimizing the yield of syn-gas. Most of the gases produced are flammable and are therefore generally used as fuel in processes or applications where such gases are required. When mixed with air, syn-gas can be used in gasoline or diesel engines with minimal modifications required to the engine.
- the gasification reactor atmosphere (level of oxygen or air content present during the process)
- reactor design
- internal/external heating ratio
- operating temperature