Consulting Services

CO2 Transport: Conceptual Dimensioning and Routing

For onshore scenarios, generally it
is best to transport carbon dioxide in a super-dense phase via pipeline unless volumes to be transported are small or the storage options require otherwise. This conceptual design service can provide clients with initial estimates for Idimensioning, routing, and operating parameters for a pipeline system to transport carbon dioxide from the emission point to the chosen storage site(s), as a function of 1) distance between the plant and the site(s), 2) CO2 flow rates, 3) estimated storage injection pressure and flow rates, 4) potential re-use of existing pipelines, 5) environmental constraints. The goal is to make a list/estimate   of the main
equipment (compression and pumping, sectioning, and lines) for the transport component of the project.

For Offshore Cases, both pipeline and transport via ship are possible. In the case where boat transport proves to be a relevant option, Geogreen can recommend an optimized shipping schedule based on several key factors: including the CO2 flow rates at the inlet of the pipeline, injection profiles at the storage site, and boat size. Potential additional facilities (buffer storage before loading, loading and unloading facilities at storage site location) can be analyzed for both liquid and super-dense shipping options.

Source-to-Sink Matching
This   exercise   entails   the   use   of   a Geographical  Information System (GIS)
tool in order to propose potential storage site/s for a given emission point (power plant, industrial facility) and the optimized path for transporting the emissions to the ©identified site/s. Building on this concept, Geogreen offers a wide range of solutions for various client needs, ranging from project scale assessments to provide optimized transport and storage options, to collective solutions for multiple emissions points within an industrial area or region, and even to multiple solutions that are optimized from a capacity, safety, and pipeline cost standpoint.

Environmental Factor Assessment
The aim of capturing, transporting, and storing CO2
within the subsurface is to reduce global emissions and improve environmental quality. Nevertheless, these CCS processes typically imply additional energy and water requirements for an industrial operation. Therefore it is of utmost importance that the real environmental benefits of any CCS project are clearly assessed and enumerated in terms of the volume of CO2 that is actually avoided (i.e. ^reducing the plants carbon footprint) as well as quantifying the additional energy and water consumption required for the project (energy and water footprints). Geogreen actively advocates the optimization of carbon management projects via a clustering (grouping) approach whenever possible, and the balance calculations mentioned here are essential tools to that purpose. Note that regarding CO2-EOR, fossil fuel and CO2 balance factors should include case specific considerations.

Key Driver Identification
Geogreen can provide clients with an initial
'quick-look analysis' for oilfields that are potentially
eligible for EOR via carbon dioxide injection (CO2-EOR). This analysis takes into account oil gravity, miscibility criteria, the original oil in place (OOIP), the cumulative production, and the field's estimated production ^life. The results from such a 'quick-look' allow Geogreen to provide the client with the potential incremental oil recovery with EOR. Other factors, such as an estimated number of necessary injection wells and how/where/when the CO2 breakthrough to production wells could likely occur can be estimated as part of this rough analysis, the goal of this being to help clients estimate the CO2 volumes that must be purchased for the project and how much will be recycled over the course of the EOR project's operation.

Preliminary Project Development Schedule
Geogreen can develop a global project implementation   schedule  for  clients:
^highlighting actions, the critical path, procurement activities, relationships between tasks, and global cost allocations.

SWOT Analysis
A SWOT analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats
that must be taken into account to launch a project or a business venture. It involves 1) specifying the objective of Ithe business venture or project, 2) identifying and mapping the internal and external factors that would positively or negatively impact the achievement of that objective, and 3) according to this mapping, defining the most possible successful roadmap for the implementation of the project. Such analysis is performed by a joint team of local (project specific) and Geogreen experts.

Preliminary Risk Analysis
Such a preliminary risk assessment is aimed at identifying
the key events that can lead to risk occurrences (e.g. leakage out of the storage reservoir) and at defining the key driving principles of the preliminary monitoring and verification plan (MMV), which are case specific.
For storage within a deep saline
formation (DSF), given the potential migration of both dissolved and super-dense CO2 plumes and the resulting overpressure within the reservoir, the potential events and risk factors are assessed using a GIS-linked project database. A risk register is created and a project-specific, qualitative risk analysis is
performed. MMV techniques and response actions are proposed (taking into consideration each risk item's impact, the probability of its occurrence, and the expected severity) for each phase of the project (injection, closure, and post-closure).
For     storage     within     depleted
hydrocarbon fields, in addition to the geological context, the assessment will be more focused on the final reservoir pressure after the injection has ended and the state of older/abandoned wells. Similar to deep saline formations, a risk register is created and a preliminary MMV scheme design and response actions are proposed.

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