CRYSTAL - Version 2013 - Continuous Fracture Modeling (CFM)
CRYSTAL 2013 enhances collaboration and provides a suite of integrated tools that Subsurface Geo-Engineering teams need to manage their assets most effectively. This 64-bit Windows solution provides – in a single, seamless environment – an integrated suite of tools to help you accurately plan, develop, and optimize your fields. Its core functionality is based on modules that generate high-resolution geologic models constrained by seismic and well data. Real-time completions data and microseismic events can also be visualized and interpreted in tandem with the geologic models, well geometries, and field-scale reservoir property predictions.
More than 70% of the world's known hydrocarbon reservoirs contain natural fracture systems, and oil companies around the world are controlling the high capital costs of drilling and completions optimization by using the Continuous Fracture Modeling (CFM™) workflow from SIGMA³ to build predictive models of their reservoirs.
A key part of the integrated CRYSTAL workflow, CFM can be used to compute reservoir sweet spots, as well as predict user-defined properties across the entire geomodel. CFM leverages an advanced, proprietary neural network to find and rank correlations that exist between large volumes of well data, production data, and seismic attributes. The neural network is first trained on a subset of available wells (e.g., using 'fracture indicator' logs from FMI, etc.), and then validated by testing its predictions on a separate subset of wells.
The sweet-spot mapping capabilities in CRYSTAL augment the base toolkit of attributes with maps of Young's Modulus, Poisson's Ratio, brittleness, and other key properties that impact stimulation and production. Around the world, SIGMA³ has used CFM predictions to enable Subsurface GeoEngineering teams to perform field-level planning and optimization - all in the spirit of determining 'Where to Drill', 'Where to Frac', 'How to Frac', and 'Where to Invest'.
Sweet-Spot Mapping can also be used in combination with the High-Resolution Imaging and Inversion package to generate detailed fracture density maps around the wellbore. In addition, CRYSTAL 4.0 can generate Discrete-Fracture Networks from CFM results. These fractures can be exported as part of the geo-cellular grid for importing into commercial reservoir simulators, such as Eclipse® and CMGTM, allowing users to forecast well- and field-scale production.
Integrated Field Surveillance
CRYSTAL combines microseismic interpretation, hydrofrac data and geomodel predictions to enhance real-time decision making. Subsurface GeoEngineering teams work together on a common platform to understand where microseismic events occur with respect to horizons, faults, well trajectories, and Continuous Fracture Model predictions that are defined on the geocellular grid.
Hydraulic fracture data (pressure data and other time series) can be viewed as a snapshot or a movie to better understand how microseismic events correlate with varying downhole conditions.
Reservoir Framework Construction
A key strength of CRYSTAL is its ability to generate robust 3D geocellular grids from interpreted single-z and multi-z horizons and faults, with the ability to represent hundreds of faults directly in the reservoir.
Users can visualize, edit, and manipulate attributes and user-defined reservoir properties in time or depth. This package also includes a suite of upscaling tools and routines for coarsening the geocellular model, as needed.
The Reservoir Framework Construction package includes the ability to import from Kingdom and a broad range of seismic, well, and field data formats. Additionally, 3D meshes can be exported to Eclipse and CMG to drive reservoir simulations, or to Petrel® for use in other workflows.
High-Resolution Imaging & Inversion
CRYSTAL now includes ThinMAN, the powerful spectral inversion technique from SIGMA³. Subsurface GeoEngineering teams apply ThinMAN to perform 'space-time adaptive' spectral inversion, which combines non-stationary wavelets with optimization algorithms to generate high-resolution images (pseudo-impedance volumes) of their reservoirs.
A companion tool, SpecMAN, allows users to visualize the results of a suite of additional proprietary spectral decomposition routines, including the SIGMA³ proprietary industry-leading ExSpect algorithm, leading to a deeper understanding of the interplay between frequency and interpreted images of thinly layered structures or changes in lithology and/or fluid properties. SpecMAN also provides users with the ability to display and manipulate mono-frequency attributes in the form of volumetric or horizon-based data, and includes data analytics tools to study the statistical distributions of these data sets.
The High-Resolution Imaging & Inversion package also includes pre- and post-stack inversion routines, such as colored and sparse spike inversion, as well as our proprietary high-resolution deterministic and stochastic methods. CRYSTAL users combine best-in-class inversion and spectral methods in order to determine rock properties, fracture networks and hydrocarbon indicators directly from well and seismic data.
Reservoir Property Prediction
The CRYSTAL base package includes the ability to analyze and edit logs and other petrophysical data on a unified platform. Vertical and deviated well ties can be performed using a step-by-step workflow that enables precise control of wavelet structure and phase. Users can also import or generate velocity models to perform time-to-depth conversion, and when combined with Reservoir Framework Construction, well-based formation tops are linked to interpreted horizons within the geocellular grid.
The Reservoir Property Prediction package includes a suite of seismic attributes, leveraging best-in-class post-stack curvature algorithms to illuminate fine-scale features that highlight critical geologic structures. The impact of ThinMAN is critical here, as high-resolution spectral inversion leads to details that have a direct impact on seismic attributes.
Key elements of CRYSTAL usability are linked to its visualization engine, which uses advanced visualization technologies and LDM (Large Data Management) technology that lets users display and manipulate very large geologic models.
Users can visualize, edit and manipulate 2D and 3D seismic data, geocellular grids, surface maps, wellbore trajectories, and a variety of field data types. CRYSTAL also works with existing workflows, and provides easy links to a variety of commercial interpretation and simulation platforms.