Dynamic emission inventory: The creation and regular updating of emission inventories is a standard task in maintaining air quality. The sources of emissions affected are mainly immobile geo-objects (e.g. streets, chimneys, residential areas) that can be well administered within a geographical information system (GIS). Emission-determining factors (e.g. traffic volumes, exhaust temperature, fuel), on the other hand, vary with time. But they too, as a rule, have a geographical reference (e.g. the position of the counting/measurement site, a town's population).
A GIS allows both information levels to be linked and thus assigns dynamic attributes to static geo-objects. The time-consuming provision of GIS-supported attributes need only be carried out once and, via the linkages and the program, attributes varying with time, such as measured traffic volumes, or population and employee numbers, can easily be brought up to date and assigned to the geo-objects under investigation.
We prepare such dynamic emission inventories for German federal states or similar areas under the GIS, ArcView, for the emission source street traffic for example. The data are determined on the basis of streets contained in the ATKIS 'Traffic' object category. Traffic volumes are taken from traffic measurements where available. For the remaining streets they are derived from supplementary socio-demographic and geographical data. The linkage of traffic data to ATKIS streets is carried out in an allocation database, through which more precise information, for example auxiliary figures for side streets, can be integrated.
The IMMIS model, integrated in the GIS and based on the current 'Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Straßenverkehrs' (Handbook of street traffic emission factors) is used for calculating emissions. Emissions along every ATKIS street are then immediately available in the GIS. They can be further processed with all known GIS functionalities and emissions can, for example, be given out directly as thematic maps or converted into the grid display usual for inventories.
GIS-integrated dynamic emission inventories
Using the GIS ArcView und MapInfo, IVU Umwelt creates and develops customized dynamic emission inventories. These are fully integrated into the GIS system and offer:
- a well-known user interfaces of the GIS systems
- complete integration of emission modeling
- consistent and redundance-free data management
- performant processing of basic data
- easy-to-use dialog-driven updating of the inventory
- simple integration of additional data within the area of investigation
- use of all GIS functionalities for further analysis, e.g. summarize to raster data
- easy creation and presentation of thematic maps
- use of the GIS' graphical possibilities for report and representation purposes