Waste & Recycling Articles

  • Co-fermentation of sewage sludge and biowastes

    The anaerobic treatment of sewage sludge has a long history in Germany. It began early in the Twentieth Century with the development of the Imhoff tank and has, since then, been con-tinuously further developed. Today, anaerobic sludge digestion is the most widely used process for stabilizing sewage sludges. Digesters, in which a portion of the sewage sludge is converted into utilizable biogas ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • A hot chance: exhaustive anaerobic digestion of “grey waste” under temperatures of pasteurization

    According to German laws municipal residual refuse MRR (biowaste, paper and glass are collected in separate bins) must be nearly mineralized before it will be deposited in a landfill, since this material can still contain 20 - 50 % biogenous organic matter leading to gaseous and liquid emissions. Especially the high-organic sieve fraction of MRR below 40 - 60 mm and with a thermal energy content ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • The effect of mixing conditions on anaerobic digester performance

    The basic principle of aerobic wastewater treatment is the conversion of some parts of organic matters to biomass and this causes production of excessive sludge in aerobic processes. This excessive sludge is withdrawn from time to time to prevent accumulation of biomass in aeration basin. In most cases, this sludge requires the stabilization before the dewatering and disposal. Different processes ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • High solids anaerobic digestion of pfmsw using novel anaerobic reactors

    In the last decade efforts have been made to control anaerobic digestion of the putrescible fraction of municipal solid waste (PFMSW) in engineered reactors, than to allow for 'free' digestion in landfill sites. Such a process achieves enhanced treatment efficiency in significantly reduced retention times (from years down to days) and completes energy recovery from waste, without biogas emissions ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Effects of the anaerobic biowaste treatment processes Management on the digestate quality (residues from Digestion/compost, process water/wastewater)

    Regarding the municipally-collected biowaste amount in Germany, a quantity of 90 - 100 kg/ per annum per citizen is registered (Gallenkemper and Doedens, 1994). That results in an annual biowaste amount of 6.3 to 7 million tons in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), whereby also sewage sludges and biogenic, industrial wastes are added. According to Hochrein (1994) about 3 million tons of ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Anaerobic digestion as integrated part of a mechanical-biological Waste treatment process

    Anaerobic digestion as a means of stabilising residual municipal solid waste (RMSW) before landfilling was evaluated to study the stabilization of RMSW through mechanical-biological processes and evaluate the effect on landfills. The tests were at the site of WGV Recycling GmbH in Quarzbichl between September 1995 and March 1996. The trials, which were run with a single-phase anaerobic digester, ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Separating micropollutants from biowastes using anaerobic treatment facilities

    Recycling of municipal organic wastes from separate collection systems becomes more and more important in the Federal Republic of Germany. Experiences gathered during the last few years indicate that the recovery potential of waste and biosolids strongly depends on quality of the produced composts or their pollutant load. This means that only really low polluted composts will be competitive in ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Biodegradable polyethylene

    It is universally recognised that polyethylene (PE) is bio-inert. Indeed, conventional LDPE is used as a standard for bio-inertness in biodegradability/compostability test methods. It is not biodegradable because it is hydrophobic and because it consists of molecules having a high molar mass. Nevertheless it is a marvellous source of energy consisting entirely of the elements carbon and hydrogen ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Market waste composting in Lima, Peru

    The Empresa de Servicios Municipales de Limpieza de Lima (ESMLL and the Pan American Center for Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Sciences (CEPIS) carried out in 1993 a joint research project oriented toward the recovery and use of market waste for compost production to benefit from the wastes generated in Lima.. This pilot project represents an effort aimed at solving the major waste ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Characterization of solid waste and determination of the emission potential

    Waste samples were taken in order to investigate the material behaviour regarding different treatment/recycling options. In waste incineration, the combustible and inert parts have to be determined. The content of biodegradable organic substances is important in biological treatment. The portion of biodegradable organic substance has also to be considered if wastes are to be landfilled. This ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Challenges and chances for organic waste management in Australia

    As in many other countries, waste management in Australia was seen as little more than providing adequate waste collection services and landfill disposal sites until recently. Waste was not seen as a problem, prompting waste generation rates per capita to reach a very high level . Understandably so, since a mere 18 million Australians occupy a vast land area with seemingly abundant space for ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Co-digestion - Processes, potentials and organization Forms

    Co-digestion of organic wastes together with livestock manure has received growing interest in Germany during the last 5 years because some waste acts have been changed in order to achieve a better protection of the environment and to promote the utilisation of wastes for the formation of renewable energy and secondary products which can substitute mineral fertilisers and conventional soil ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Combining primary collection with decentralised composting - a solution?

    The environmental problems of urban areas extend over a wide range of spatial scales; i.e., the household, the place of work, the neighbourhood, the city, the wider region, and the world. In rapidly growing cities of the developing world, urban solid waste management (SWM) is currently regarded as one of the most immediate and serious problems faced by urban governments. Inadequate or unavailable ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Development of wet pre-treatment and pulper technology

    Since 1984 BTA is involved in activities in the area of waste pre-treatment. This process was first implemented in 1986 in a pilot plant. The patented BTA-Process is consisting of the following main steps: - Wet pre-treatment of waste with separation of the contaminants and production of a pumpable suspension- Sand separation by a hydrodynamic grit removal system- Digestion of the suspension in ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Impact of organic residues on soil microorganisms

    It is well known that organic residue amendments to soil give beneficial effects such as provision of plant nutrients, increased humus content and thereby increased water holding capacity, improved structure and increased cation exchange capacity. Organic wastes can be a valuable fertiliser in terms of phosphorous. Chemical precipitation in the sewage treatment plant makes sewage sludge rich in ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Perspectives on organic waste recovery relative to composting and anaerobic digestion

    Generally speaking, organic waste renders its self suitable for recovery purposes owing to the nutrient elements it contains and the energy stored in the biochemical bonds of its constituent organic compounds. Both composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) have been used since a long time ago in reclaiming organic material. It seems that the first modern composting process was developed in 1920s in ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Composting of municipal waste in Poland

    Composting constitute an important element of the integrated systems of municipal waste management, which is being developed these days. In such systems, the process is employed mainly in the treatment of selectively collected biologically degradable moist waste coming from kitchens, gardening and municipal green places. The biological treatment of mixed municipal waste, however, is employed ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Composting and biogasification for senna pod waste stabilization

    A medical factory in Finland extracts sennocid from pods of a senna plant with a solvent containing methanol and water. Sennocid is the active compound in some constipation medicines (Otavan Iso Kasvitietosanankirja, 1981). The extraction process produces 50 m3 of pod waste weekly. In 1998, 757 tons of pod waste was produced. The water and methanol contents of the waste are approximately 25 w/w-% ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Low cost pre-treatment of waste landfill emissions - does mechanically-biologically treated waste facilitate the operation of low environmental impact landfills?

    Rules and regulations contained in the German Federal Waste Management Act are specified and complemented in administrative directives. One of them is the so called ”Technische Anleitung Siedlungsabfall” (TASi), in other words the Technical Directive for Municipal Solid Waste, which stipulates criteria for the use, treatment and disposal of waste materials. Where it is not possible to ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Potential biogas production from sludges and msw in Uruguay

    Sewage treatment Montevideo's sewage is disposed into the sea by means of an outfall. Nevertheless as there are a lot of cities that are not on seashore, and most of these cities are discharging their effluents into rivers without proper treatment, a more strict sewage treatment must be done in order to achieve the discharge standards. For the 1,780,000 inhabitants the current sewage coverage is ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

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